Caractéristiques et fonctions des microARN plaquettaires

Authors: Corduan, Aurélie
Advisor: Provost, Patrick
Abstract: Platelets play an important role in hemostasis, as well as in thrombosis and coagulation processes. Lacking genomic DNA, they nevertheless harbor a complex transcriptome. Although platelet messenger RNAs (mRNAs) can be used for de novo protein synthesis, especially in response to physiological stimuli, mechanisms controlling this synthesis remain unclear. Our team demonstrated that human platelets contain an abundant and diverse array of microRNAs, suggesting their involvement in the control of platelet mRNA translation. Following stimulation, platelets release microparticles (MPs) that convey biological signals and genetic material to recipient cells. The involvement of platelet microRNAs in the intercellular communication via MPs remained incompletely understood. The study of microRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein complexes inside platelets revealed the involvement of microRNAs and of the protein T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) in the recognition and regulation of platelets mRNAs, thereby improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating de novo protein synthesis upon platelet activation. Moreover, the study of intercellular communication between platelets and macrophages demonstrated that platelet MPs could (i) deliver functional microRNAs capable to regulate endogenous mRNA expression in recipient cells, and (ii) reprogram primary functions of macrophages, suggesting numerous physiological effects. My thesis results suggest that platelet microRNAs contribute to maintain the hemostatic balance, in regulating the synthesis of essential proteins and by modulating gene expression of surrounding cells. The study of platelet microRNA functions underscores the complexity of the regulatory processes of hemostasis and of the circulatory system.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2015
Open Access Date: 23 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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