L'effet de la stratégie logicielle (ERP open source vs ERP commercial) sur le développement du capital humain des PME
|Abstract:||Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in industrialized countries’ economy. Due to increasing internal and external pressure, SMEs need to adopt integrated information systems such as ERP systems, like the big enterprises. The rapid expansion of ERP systems’ adoption by SMEs is due to two phenomena: 1 - the advent of lighter versions of commercial ERP systems and 2 - the rise of open source ERP systems. Managers of SMEs, wanting to adopt an ERP system, are facing two software strategies: the software strategy directed towards the open source ERP systems and the software strategy directed towards the commercial/proprietary ERP systems. The ERP systems are information systems extremely complex and difficult to set up, because they incorporate and integrate several functional domains under a single technological platform. The establishment and evolution of an ERP system require a large amount of knowledge and of diversified expertise. This knowledge and expertise constitute human capital. According to the literature, human capital is a strategic organizational resource and a source of competitive advantage. In this study, we defined human capital as the sum of the human capital acquired or developed internally (i.e., the knowledge and expertise developed in-house) and of the available external human capital (i.e., accessible knowledge and external expertise). The literature supports that open source communities offer several opportunities of learning (acquisition and development of knowledge and skills) and of human capital development to their members. Thus, in the current economic context, where all companies are looking for a competitive advantage, which software strategy (open source ERP or commercial / proprietary ERP) is more advantageous to SMEs, regarding the development of human capital during the implementation and post-implementation phases? The objective of this research is to study and compare the human capital development of SMEs in the context of an open source ERP project versus a commercial/proprietary ERP project, during the implementation and post-implementation phases. The empirical study was conducted with 10 SMEs divided into two groups: a group of five SMEs with open source ERP systems and a group of five SMEs with commercial ERP systems. The results of the present thesis show that there is no difference between these two groups of SMEs regarding the development of their human capital (internal and external), during the phases of implementation and post-implementation. With regard to the human capital developed in-house, during the implementation and post-implementation phases, the results of this research show that SMEs, regardless of their adopted software strategy (open source ERP system or commercial/proprietary ERP system), develop more business human capital than technical human capital. This poor development of in-house technical human capital in SMEs having adopted an open source ERP and those having adopted a commercial ERP results from the lack of IT personnel at their IT departments. This research has identified several factors (technological, organizational and environmental) that may impact on the development of the internal human capital of SMEs. This study finds that the technical absorption capacity of the SMEs, irrespective of their software strategy (ERP open source and proprietary), is lower than their business absorption capacity due to the lack of IT personnel of SMEs. Regarding the available external human capital, this research finds that there is no difference between SMEs with an open source ERP and SMEs with a proprietary ERP, during the implementation and post-implementation phases. SMEs, regardless of their software strategy (ERP open source and proprietary), have the same structures of social ties. This research finds that SMEs with an open source ERP do not have direct relationships with the communities of open source ERP, which constitutes, according to the literature on the development of human capital (Coleman, 1988), a structural deficit. This explains why the available external human capital of SMEs with an open source ERP is similar to that of SMEs with a proprietary ERP. The results of this research show that SMEs, irrespective of their software strategy (ERP open source and proprietary), continue to use the external human capital of their partner-integrator to manage the evolution of their ERP systems, during the post-implantation phase.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||23 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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