Alimentation et inflammation : considérations épidémiologiques, cliniques et métaboliques

Authors: Labonté, Marie-Ève
Advisor: Lamarche, BenoîtCouture, Patrick
Abstract: Low-grade systemic inflammation is a key etiological factor in the development and progression of several multifactorial disorders including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that diet significantly modulates the inflammatory profile. However, several questions about this topic remain unanswered at this time. The major aim of the present PhD project was to study the impact of diet on inflammation and its underlying mechanisms by using three different experimental approaches, namely 1) an epidemiological approach, 2) a clinical approach and 3) a metabolic approach. Diet also has been studied from various angles including nutrients (dietary fatty acids, such as omega-3), foods (dairy products) and dietary patterns reflecting diet as a whole. First, we assessed the associations between different nutritional factors (omega-3 and dietary patterns) and circulating inflammatory biomarkers in two Aboriginal nations from Northern Quebec. These nations were selected based on the considerable and recent increase in the prevalence of several metabolic disorders in these populations in conjunction with an important nutrition transition. Overall, our work indicates that the diet of the James Bay Cree and Nunavik Inuit populations appears to exert only a trivial influence on their inflammatory profile. Second, we conducted a randomized crossover controlled nutrition intervention study assessing the impact of dairy product consumption on inflammation as well as a systematic review of the literature on this topic. Our work suggests that consumption of dairy products as part of a healthy diet has no adverse effect on the inflammatory profile. Third, we conducted two randomized crossover controlled nutrition intervention studies which showed that the consumption of different dietary fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources, exerts little or no influence on the expression of inflammatory genes in whole blood cells of individuals with abdominal obesity or in duodenal cells of obese men with type 2 diabetes. Taken together, our various works presented here suggest that diet has a minor influence on inflammation.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2015
Open Access Date: 23 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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