Recherche de nouvelles cibles pharmacologiques en psychiatrie par l'étude des monoamines : approches neuropsychopharmacologiques de la cognition et des émotions chez l'animal

Authors: Del'Guidice, Thomas
Advisor: Beaulieu, Jean Martin
Abstract: Dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine are monoaminergic neurotransmitters. Receptors, transporters and others monoamines compounds are involved in several brain functions such as cognition, emotions and locomotion, and are targeted by psychotropic drugs. In our research center, we focus on multidisciplinary approaches to better understand the role of monoamines on brain-regulated behavioral and biochemical processes, and on the impact of these agents on the monoamine cellular targets involved in the regulation of cognitive and emotional behaviors in mice. Using the automated behavioral test named olfactory H-maze, we measured the cognitive impact of several monoaminergic metabolic changes in mutant mice. Serotonin deficient (Tph2-KI) or hyperdopaminergic (DAT-KO) mice showed severe cognitive deficits. Thanks to the complexity of the H-maze, we were able to rescue learning and cognitive flexibility in these mice independently from others brain functions like motricity, and by targeting several extracellular monoaminergic substrates, like the serotonin 5HT2C receptor and the norepinephrine transporter. Furthermore, we investigate the cellular functions of several monoamines-regulated intracellular compounds and identified a new common action mode of psychotropic drugs mood stabilizers. We showed that lithium, valproate and lamotrigine may regulate several emotional behaviors by involving the Akt/GSK3 signaling pathway and the multifunctional scaffolding protein βarrestin 2. Thus, we show for the first time that this signaling cascade may be regulated by the formation of a protein complex composed by the D2 receptor and the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.6. This interaction would be a mechanism targeted by mood stabilizers valproate and lamotrigine. Finally, we found a new common substrate of GSK3 for these three mood stabilizers, the fragile X-related protein 1 (FXR1), which may participate to the regulation of mood by these agents. We hope that our works will lead to new research avenues and, in the future, to the development of more efficacy psychotropic drugs without aversive side effects.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 23 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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