Génétique, acides gras oméga-3 et facteurs de risque des maladies cardiovasculaires

Authors: Bouchard-Mercier, Annie
Advisor: Vohl, Marie-ClaudeLemieux, Simone
Abstract: Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are complex and their risk factors are regulated by many factors, for example the genetic background and dietary intakes. In this project, 210 participants were recruited. Two dietary factors were identified, the Prudent dietary pattern which was characterised by higher intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and non-hydrogenated fats and the Western dietary pattern, characterised by higher intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. Both dietary patterns modulated the expression of genes related to the immune system, inflammatory response, cancer and/or CVD. The Western dietary pattern was also associated with a metabolite profile which comprised greater concentrations of certain amino acids as well as small chain acylcartinines. To examine the interindividual variability in the response to a nutrient, a 6 week fish oil supplementation was conducted among the 210 participants. SNPs related to genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid beta-oxidation (ACLY, ACACA, GCK, RXRA, ACOX1) were associated alone or in an interaction effect with dietary intakes with the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to the fish oil supplementation. The genetic variability within sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) gene was associated with differences in the response of insulin concentrations following fish oil supplementation. In a second cohort of 691 participants, associations between SNPs, identified in a previous GWAS conducted among the 210 participants supplemented with fish oil, and TG as well as plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentrations were observed. This thesis also comprises a knowledge transfer section where the attitude was identified as the main determinant of the intention of dietitians to discuss nutrigenetics with their patients/clients. Globally, these results demonstrate that dietary patterns modulate the metabolism at several levels and that the response to fish oil is variable depending upon genetic profile and dietary intakes.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2015
Open Access Date: 23 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/25719
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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