Étude des mécanismes athérogènes associés à l'insulino-résistance et l'hypercholestérolémie familiale
|Advisor:||Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît|
|Abstract:||We observed in a group of 259 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and 208 normolipidemic controls that the type of mutation causing FH was associated with changes in the LDL peak particle diameter. Patients carrying a negative-receptor mutation displayed a more deteriorated profile than patients carrying a defective-receptor mutation and than controls. In the same group, we observed that FH was associated to smaller HDL particles, which are more rapidly cleared from circulation and can no longer correctly participate to the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Finally, we observed that FH is associated to increased fasting levels of chylomicron remnants, which participate to atherosclerosis development, in the same way as LDL do. Moreover, these results underline the role of the LDL receptor in these remnants catabolism. In the second part of the work presented, we examined the metabolism of apoprotein (apo) B-48 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We observed that patients with DM2 had increased apoB-48 levels, due to marked increased intestinal production and decreased catabolism. We also observed the effects of a treatment with fenofibrate or atorvastatine on apoB-48 and apoB-100 kinetics and on inflammation, oxidative stress and monocytes adhesion in DM2. Atorvastatin and fenofibrate were equally effective to lower plasma triglyceride levels. Atorvastatin increased VLDL and IDL catabolism by increasing receptor-mediated catabolism while fenofibrate increased VLDL, IDL and chylomicrons catabolism by increasing lipolysis. Atorvastatin decreased apoB-48 levels by decreasing production. Atorvastatin was potent to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress and monocyte adhesion while fenofibrate was potent to reduce only one monocytes adhesion marker. However, fenofibrate increased LDL-C and phospholipase A2-IIA levels.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||20 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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