Le rôle des archées dans l'inflammation et leur impact sur la santé humaine

Authors: Blais Lecours, Pascale
Advisor: Duchaine, CarolineMarsolais, David
Abstract: Archaea have recently been recognized as ubiquitous microorganisms found in the digestive tract of human and several animal species. Humans can thus be exposed to archaea through several routes such as their own intestinal microflora, but also via exposure to animal manure which components can be aerosolized and inhaled. Archaeal impact on respiratory and intestinal human health is not known. Bioaerosol’s exact composition must be defined in order to better understand what humans are exposed to. Moreover, the role of Methanosphaera stadtmanae (MSS) and Methanobrevibacter smithii (MBS), two archaeal species found in human gut, on the health of the intestinal tract and potentially in inflammatory bowel diseases is unknown. Studies on dairy barns’ bioaerosol’s biodiversity revealed the presence of high airborne concentrations and various species of bacteria and archaea. Pulmonary inflammatory mechanisms of immune response to archaea were studied using a chronic airway exposure mouse model. MSS showed a higher immunogenic potential than MBS, with more severe hitopathological alterations and higher numbers of inflammatory cells and activated myeloid dendritic cells in exposed mice lungs than MBS. The inflammatory potential of MSS and MBS was also confirmed with a human cell model. Finally, to study the role of archaea in bowel inflammation, the presence of MBS and MSS was evaluated in stool samples from inflammatory bowel diseases’ patients and control subjects. A higher prevalence of the inflammatory archaea MSS was detected in stool samples from patients. MSS-specific antibodies were also found in higher concentration in this group. These results show that archaea are present in bioaerosols and human gut and that they can have an impact on respiratory and intestinal inflammation. We are just beginning to explore the presence of archaea in human environment and our response to these unheralded agents. Their role as protective, proinflammatory or tolerated agents awaits further studied.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2014
Open Access Date: 20 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/25467
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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