Structure et dynamique du peptide de fusion membranaire du virus Influenza et son impact sur la membrane

Authors: Légaré, Sébastien
Advisor: Lague, Patrick
Abstract: Membrane fusion is an essential step of the Influenza virus infectious cycle whose understanding remains incomplete. Fusion requires surface viral protein hemagglutinin and, in particular, its twenty N-terminal amino acids composing the fusion peptide. This peptide was shown to initiate fusion even when isolated from the rest of the protein, but the molecular mechanism by which it achieves membrane fusion is still misunderstood. To better understand this mechanism, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the fusion peptide, fusogenic F9A mutant and nonfusogenic W14A mutant, in model membranes. First, we studied the structure and dynamics of the fusion peptide. The fusion peptide adopted straight a-helical and kinked conformations, and inserted at the membrane interface with an almost parallel orientation with the membrane surface. Mutant peptides additionaly adopted a hairpin structure. The dynamics of the peptides was hence compared to that of a flexible V, switching conformation by hinge movements. In a second step, fusion peptide-induced membrane perturbations were studied from simulations. Those perturbations include lipid tail protrusion and polar head intrusion. The two perturbations were caused by hydrogen bonding between lipid phosphates and membrane inserted peptide N-terminal amides. The amount of polar head intrusion induced by the mutant peptides in simulations was correlated to their experimental fusogenic activity and the insertion depth of their N-termini. Following those results, we propose that polar head intrusion would complement lipid tail protrusion during membrane fusion by reducing the repulsive forces between juxtaposed membranes polar heads. This model of membrane fusion mechanism may have an impact on future Influenza antiviral research.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2014
Open Access Date: 20 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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