Étude des changements structuraux photo-induits dans le verre à l’aide des impulsions femtosecondes et application à l’inscription de composants photoniques
|Abstract:||The intensity of a femtosecond laser pulse is strong enough to free valence electrons from the local potential of their parent atom. Therefore, the laser-matter interaction is highly non-linear which has a significant impact on the energy transfer between pulses and the material. Focusing a femtosecond pulses laser beam results in the precise deposition of energy at the focus through nonlinear absorption mechanisms. This leads to a localised refractive index change and translation of the glass sample through the focussed laser beam allows the inscription of three-dimensional photo-induced structures. The method can be applied to every material on the sole condition of transparency at the wavelength of the laser source. Those characteristics demonstrate the enormous potential of the direct writing method for the fabrication of integrated photonics devices. Further development of this powerful tool necessitates improvements of the inscription process and a better understanding of the response of optical materials to femtosecond pulses. The research project described in this thesis refers to the study of the photo-induced changes and their application to the inscription of photonic components in different types of glass. First, we demonstrated the quasi-periodic self-arrangement of multiple filaments in fused silica through self-focussing of a highly elliptical beam. We enhanced the periodicity of the multiple filaments distribution by inserting a binary phase mask in the beam path. Next, the interaction between femtosecond pulses and fluoride glasses in both repetitive and thermal inscription regime was investigated in details. An exhaustive study of the photosensitivity of Ge-S binary glass followed. In both materials we showed that the morphology and the sign of the refractive index change can be modified through precise adjustment of the exposure conditions, allowing for the direct inscription of low loss optical waveguides. Also, we showed that the response of Ge-S glass is linked with the amount of sulfur present in the glass composition. Ultimately, this thesis conveys an original contribution to the development of the direct inscription method and demonstrates the flexibility of the technique concerning the refractive index modifications of special optical glasses used in the field of optic-photonic.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||20 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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