Percolation sur graphes aléatoires - modélisation et description analytique -

Authors: Allard, Antoine
Advisor: Dubé, Louis J.
Abstract: Graphs are abstract mathematical objects used to model the interactions between the elements of complex systems. Their use is motivated by the fact that there exists a fundamental relationship between the structure of these interactions and the macroscopic properties of these systems. The structure of these graphs is analyzed within the paradigm of percolation theory whose tools and concepts contribute to a better understanding of the conditions for which these emergent properties appear. The underlying interactions of a wide variety of complex systems share many universal structural properties, and including these properties in a unified theoretical framework is one of the main challenges of the science of complex systems. Capitalizing on a multitype approach, a simple yet powerful idea, we have unified the models of percolation on random graphs published to this day in a single framework, hence yielding the most general and realistic framework to date. More than a mere compilation, this framework significantly increases the structural complexity of the graphs that can now be mathematically handled, and, as such, opens the way to many new research opportunities. We illustrate this assertion by using our framework to validate hypotheses hinted at by empirical results. First, we investigate how the network structure of some complex systems (e.g., power grids, social networks) enhances our ability to monitor them, and ultimately to control them. Second, we test the hypothesis that the “k-core” decomposition can act as an effective structure of graphs extracted from real complex systems. Third, we use our framework to identify the conditions for which a new immunization strategy against infectious diseases is optimal.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2014
Open Access Date: 20 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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