Reconstruction tridimensionnelle de scènes sous-marines à partir de séquences d’images acquises par des caméras acoustiques

Authors: Brahim, Naouraz
Advisor: Daniel, Sylvie; Solaiman, Bassel
Abstract: According to recent studies, climate change is having a significant impact on our marine environment inducing temperature increases, chemistry changes, ocean circulation influencing both population dynamics and underwater structure stability. Environmental change is thus a growing scientific concern requiring a regular monitoring of the evolution of underwater ecosystems with appropriate studies combined with accurate and relevant detailed information extraction and preservation. Tracking and modeling such changes in a marine environment is one of the current challenges for underwater exploration. The most common technique used to observe underwater environment, relies on vision-based systems either acoustical or optical. Optical cameras are widely used for acquiring images of the seafloor/underwater structures as they can provide information about the physical properties of the image that will enable the description of the observed scene (color, reflection, geometry). However, the range limitation and non-ideal underwater conditions (dark and turbid waters) make acoustic imaging the most reliable means of sight inside the underwater environment. Traditional sonar systems cannot provide an acoustic image sequences like optical cameras. To overcome those drawbacks, acoustic camera was built. They can produce real time high resolution underwater image sequences, with high refresh rate. Moreover, compared to optical devices, they can acquire acoustic images in turbid, deep and dark water making acoustic camera imaging a reliable means for observing underwater environment. However, although acoustic cameras can provide 2-D resolution of the order of centimeters, they do not resolve the altitude of observed scene. Thus they offer a 2D environment representation which provides incomplete information about the underwater environment. Hence, it would be very interesting to have a system which can provide height information as well as a high resolution. This is the purpose of this thesis where we developed a methodology that enables 3D reconstruction of underwater scenes using sequences of acoustic images. The proposed methodology is inspired from stereovision techniques that allow 3D information computation from image sequences. It consists of two main steps. In the first step, we propose an approach that enables the extraction of relevant salient points from several images. In the second step, two different methods have been proposed (curvilinear approach and volumetric approach) in order to reconstruct the observed scene using images acquired from different viewpoints. The Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy algorithm (SE-AMC) has been used to compute camera movement between images. This movement has been then used to retrieve 3D information. The methodology performances have been evaluated: feature extraction approach has been assessed using criteria of good detection, repeatability and good localization and 3D reconstruction approach has been assessed by comparison between estimated camera movement and 3D information with real data.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2014
Open Access Date: 20 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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