Ultra-wideband indoor communications using optical technology
|Abstract:||Ultra-wideband (UWB) communication has attracted an enormous amount of research in recent years, especially after the introduction of the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) spectral mask. Ultra-short pulses allow for very high bit-rates while low power eliminates interference with existing narrowband systems. Low power, however, limits the propagation range of UWB radios to a few meters for indoors wireless transmission. Furthermore, received UWB signals are spread in time because of multipath propagation which results in high intersymbol interference at high data rates. Gaussian monocycle, the most commonly employed UWB pulse, has poor coverage under the FCC mask. In this thesis we demonstrate transmitters capable of generating UWB pulses with high power efficiency at Gb/s bit-rates. An efficient pulse results in higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver by utilizing most of the available power under the FCC spectral mask. We generate the pulses in the optical domain and use optical fiber to transport the pulses over several kilometers for distribution in a passive optical network. Optical fiber is very reliable for transporting radio signals with low power consumption. We use simple elements such as a Mach Zehnder modulator or a ring resonator for pulse shaping, allowing for integration in silicon. Being compatible with CMOS technology, silicon photonics has huge potential for lowering the cost and bulkiness of optical systems. Photodetection converts the pulses to the electrical domain before antenna transmission at the user side. The frequency response of UWB antennas distorts the UWB waveforms. We pro- pose a nonlinear optimization technique which takes into account antenna distortion to find pulses that maximize the transmitted power, while respecting the FCC spectral mask. We consider three antennas and design a unique pulse for each. The energy improvement in UWB pulses directly improves the receiver SNR. Simulation results show that optimized pulses have a significant bit error rate (BER) performance improvement compared to the Gaussian monocycle under multipath propagation. Our other contribution is evaluating a matched filter to receive efficiently designed UWB pulses. The matched filter is synthesized and fabricated in microstrip technology in collaboration with McGill University as an electromagnetic bandgap device. The frequency response of the matched filter shows close agreement with the target UWB pulse spectrum. BER measurements confirm superior performance of the matched filter compared to a direct conversion receiver. The UWB channel is very rich in multipath leading to ISI at high bit rates. Our last contribution is investigating the performance of receivers by simulating a system employing realistic channel conditions. Simulation results show that the performance of such system degrades significantly for high data rates. To compensate the severe ISI at gigabit rates, we investigate the Viterbi algorithm (VA) with a limited number of states and the decision feedback equalizer (DFE). We examine the required number of states in the VA, and the number of taps in the DFE for reliable Gb/s UWB trans- mission for line-of-sight channels. Non-line-of-sight channels were also investigated at lower speeds. BER simulations confirm that equalization considerably improves the performance compared to symbol detection. The DFE results in better performance compared to the VA when using comparable complexity as the DFE can cover greater channel memory with a relatively low complexity level.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||20 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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