Réalisme critique et désistement du crime chez les sursitaires québécois : appréhension des facteurs structurels, institutionnels et identitaires

Authors: Fortin-Dufour, Isabelle
Advisor: Brassard, Renée
Abstract: For over one hundred years, sentences are served in the community in the province of Quebec. It is generally recognized that offenders who receive (voluntarily or not) rehabilitative treatment while serving their sentence have recidivism rates significantly lower than those not receiving it. However, there is no consensus yet on the process that binds these treatments to other factors specific to the offender or to his social environment and the absence of offense. That is why some researchers ceased to assess the individual effects of treatment on recidivism and decided to focus their attention on the process that leads to the cessation of criminal behavior (desistance from crime). Their understandings of this process can be grouped under three different perspectives: 1) the ontogenetic perspective holds that desistance is a simple consequence of normal human maturation; 2) from a holistic perspective desistance is associated with the pressure exerted by the social structure; and finally 3) from the individualistic perspective desistance is rather a decision taken by the agent. Whereas none of these perspectives holds consensus, it was considered appropriate to propose a fourth perspective, critical realism, to grasp a better comprehension of this process. Data collected from a sample of thirty men who were on a conditional sentence of imprisonment in the province of Quebec and didn’t reoffend since, allowed to highlight three distinct processes that lead to the desistance from crime. The first process actually seems to be mainly initiated by the social structure, but it does require significant involvement of the agent. The second, in turn, is rather initiated by the agent, but it can’t be unfold without access to structural resources. Finally, the last process happens at the meeting point between agent and structure since it involves a simultaneous access to available resources in the social structure and mobilization on the part of the agent. The identification of these three processes lead to a better recognition of the circumstances under which the process of desistance from crime is initiated by the structure, by the agent, or requires the simultaneous action of agents and social structure.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 20 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/24854
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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