Étude de la résistance à la sclérotiniose chez le soya
|Abstract:||Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most important soybean diseases in Eastern Canada. Using resistant varieties is the most efficient and economic way to repress this disease. However disease pressure in the field fluctuates considerably from year to year according to climatic conditions, thus impeding the identification of resistant material. We developed a reliable and reproducible artificial inoculation method to assess resistance in the greenhouse and in the field. Named the «cotton pad method», it relies upon applying a piece of cotton pad soaked in a mycelial suspension on a floral bud and to measure the ensuing lesion length one week after inoculation. This quick and easy method provides disease ratings similar to the reference method used in Québec and is able to distinguish true resistance from disease avoidance mechanisms. We then used the cotton pad method to evaluate the degree of resistance in a panel of 130 soybean lines representing the genetic diversity present in this species in Quebec. In parallel, we developed a high-throughput genotyping by sequencing method for soybean and used it to genotype the collection. Sequencing provided 266.7 million distinct sequences, which yielded 7,864 SNPs on the 20 soybean chromosomes after several filtering steps. Association mapping performed between the genotype of the lines and their resistance level revealed the presence of four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with SSR resistance. The strongest association was validated in a biparental population generated from a cross between two parents contrasted at this locus. Furthermore, none of the most resistant lines developed so far carries all of the resistance alleles, which suggests that it is possible to develop lines presenting increased SSR resistance. These results are promising for marker assisted or genomic selection.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||19 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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