Étude de l'évolution et de la diversité des poissons d'eau douce de l'Amérique du Nord par une approche génétique comparative

Authors: April, Julien
Advisor: Bernatchez, Louis; Hanner, Robert
Abstract: Intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation has been studied among North America’s freshwater fishes in order to improve our current knowledge on the evolution of biodiversity and to facilitate the conservation of this richness. Firstly, we generated a standard reference library of mitochondrial DNA sequences (DNA barcodes) for 752 North American freshwater fish species to provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Results further suggest that current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, while artificially creating diversity in others. Secondly, we studied intraspecific and interspecific genetic divergence in order to describe and identify the underlying evolutionary causes of general patterns of biodiversity distribution. This study supports a dual role involving both the late Pliocene-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and metabolic rate in determining latitudinal gradients of genetic divergence. Thirdly, patterns of mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA (AFLP) have been studied among different codistributed pairs of glacial lineages in order to verify the generality of allopatric speciation. This study shows that the Eastern Great-Lakes drainage represents a multi-species suture zone for glacial lineages of freshwater fishes with variable levels of genetic divergence. AFLP analyses among four pairs of lineages indicate that lineages with relatively deep levels of mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence (> 2 %) developed strong reproductive barriers. By describing different levels of divergence and reproductive isolation in different co-occurring fishes, we offer strong evidence that allopatric speciation has contributed significantly to the diversification of North Eastern American freshwater fishes. This thesis therefore offers a new molecular identification tool for freshwater fish of North America and brings strong evidences that allopatric speciation has played a predominant role in generating biodiversity.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 19 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/24563
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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