Optimisation des stratégies de surveillance pour la détection précoce d'un tunicier envahissant par l'évaluation des mécanismes et des patrons de recrutement

Authors: Collin, Samuel
Advisor: Johnson, Ladd Erik
Abstract: The globalisation of human activity has contributed greatly to the artificial dispersal and introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) around the world. The potential for damage is such that there is great pressure on environmental managers to detect and control problematic NIS (i.e., invasive species) before any impacts occur. By studying NIS, ecologists can examine aspects of species survival, dispersal, and establishment, which, in addition to addressing fundamental questions of ecology, provide vital information for optimizing management effort. However, the difficulties associated with studying and detecting nascent populations has restricted quantitative studies on the processes that precede invasion, leaving environmental mangers with little guidance for detecting NIS. To alleviate this shortcoming, this study provides a quantitative assessment of the determinants of recruitment and dispersal of the notoriously problematic invasive tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (henceforth Ciona), in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, during the early stages of invasion. Recruitment data from a nascent population of Ciona was collected over a two-year period (2008 & 2009), which allowed for dispersal to be modelled (range and peak) and for patterns of recruitment during establishment to be examined. These data highlight the importance of incorporating dispersal, as well as environmental variability, into early-detection monitoring strategies and demonstrate how drivers of recruitment change as the invading population becomes larger and more widespread. Additionally, a series of small-scale manipulative field studies were performed to assess patterns of recruitment during settlement. The respective roles of light and gravity on Ciona larval behaviour were identified and their incorporation into the design of monitoring equipment (to increase settlement rates and, thus, probability of detection) are discussed. Finally, biotic resistance towards NIS was examined by investigating the interactions between Ciona larvae and two species of caprellid amphipod, Caprella linearis (native) and C. mutica (invasive) found in PEI. This study shows how the presence of caprellids reduces Ciona recruitment and illustrates the potential for negative interactions between two NIS (C. mutica and Ciona), a phenomenon rarely documented. From a managerial perspective, these negative interactions can provide valuable insights to potential biocontrol agents. Moreover, this study presents a detailed account of the underlying mechanisms that influence patterns of recruitment of a problematic invader and discusses the utility of these findings for future monitoring and management of invasive species.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 19 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/24555
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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