La voie ASP-C5L2 : un pont entre l'homéostasie métabolique et l'inflammation
|Advisor:||Cianflone, Katherine M.|
|Abstract:||Recent research findings have characterized adipose tissue as en endocrine organ and have shown that obesity triggers the development of low-grade inflammation, termed metaflammation. This thesis focuses on one adipokine and its receptor, acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and C5L2 receptor, and their relationship with energy metabolism and metaflammation. ASP derives from the complement system and acts on adipocytes by upregulating fatty acid and glucose absorption, resulting in a net increase in lipid storage. Mice genetically deficient in components of the ASP–C5L2 pathway are obesity-resistant but hyperphagic, suggesting that the disruption of this pathway could hold a therapeutical value. This thesis sequentially evaluates in mouse models (i) the consequences of an acute ASP stimulation, (ii) metabolism in C5L2-deficient animals treated with a diabetogenic diet, (iii) and the dynamics of the ASP–C5L2 pathway in diet-induced obesity. ASP acts acutely as an anabolic hormone, stimulating glucose absorption in tissues with active glucose transport. Paradoxically, ASP also generates an acute proinflammatory response with increased cytokine release, macrophage migration and classical activation. The disruption of C5L2 receptor in a murine model treated with a diabetogenic diet induced the opposite effects on energy metabolism, aggravating the development of insulin resistance and rerouting glucose to the liver. A more pronounced phenotype of metaflammation is also measurable in C5L2 knockout mice, probably linked to the second function of the C5L2 receptor, the sequestration of the anaphylatoxin C5a. In a model of diet-induced obesity, the proof-of-concept of ASP resistance is demonstrated and possibly linked with a reduction in C5L2 expression. The final study in this thesis (iv) evaluates the clinical contribution of ASP and the complement system in the outcome of an intervention designed to modulate the interaction between metabolism and immunity in a surgical context of hepatic resection. The results shown in the present work clarify the role and the therapeutical potential of the ASP–C5L2 pathway and describe it as a bridge between inflammation and metabolic homeostasis.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||19 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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