Caractérisation, récolte et valorisation de la fibre de maïs à basse teneur en eau au Québec
|Abstract:||Corn stover is the aerial part of the plant excluding grain, sometimes called MOG (material other than grain). Stover is generally a crop residue because most grain growers leave it on the ground after grain harvest. Dry corn stover can be used as bedding material or as a solid fuel on the farm. However, the cold and wet climate prevailing in Eastern Canada considerably limits the harvest of dry corn stover (moisture content < 15%) in the fall. Standing corn plants were sampled in fall 2008 to 2010 in order to determine the potential stover yields. For a site located in a 2300-2500 CHU (crop heat unit) zone, stover yields varied from 6.2 to 8.0 tonnes of dry matter (DM) per hectare. Yields ranging from 7.7 to 10.5 t DM ha-1 were measured for two other sites located in the 2900-3100 CHU zone. Large scale field harvest trials were done in spring from 2009 to 2011. The available stover yield in the spring averaged 63% (6.6 t DM ha-1) of the stover yield in the previous fall. Based on fall yields, 47 to 50% of the stover was collected using haymaking equipment. The average moisture content was 9.0%. Collection efficiency was reduced to 45% with a flail windrower but a gain in productivity was measured (5.2 ha h-1) compared to mowing and raking operations (2.3 and 2.0 ha h-1). Harvest losses from a self-loading wagon were smaller (6%) than from a round baler (15%). The cost of field operations varied between $29.04 and $34.30 t-1 DM depending on the harvest sequence. Storage cost was as high as $71.85 t-1 DM for bulk material harvested with the self-loading wagon. Large square and round bale storage cost was estimated at $29.87 t-1 DM and $59.44 t-1 DM, respectively. Corn stover had a higher absorption index (2.8) than wood shavings (1.8) and saw dust (2.1) used at the farm. The calorific energy of corn stover ranged from 16.86 to 17.64 MJ kg-1 while the ash content varied between 4.80 and 7.31%. Results should allow effective planning of cost and operations related to dry corn stover harvested in the spring.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||19 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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