Steep channel ice and hydrological processes
|Advisor:||Morse, Brian; Anctil, François|
|Abstract:||This thesis, through a collection of five publications, describes and quantifies steep (gravel bed) channel ice processes. Before this research project was undertaken the literature on the topic was largely incomplete and ice processes taking place in gravel bed channels, which represent common cold region fluvial settings, could only be partly explained. Ice features forming along steep channels and described in the thesis include anchor ice accumulations, ice weirs, ice dams, icing fields, icing dikes, suspended ice covers, and spray ice shells. This thesis also approaches river ice breakup processes such as ice runs and ice jams. The findings presented in this work are the result of three winters of field observation and steep channels monitoring. Research sites were visited over 120 times, mostly during the winter period. Ice processes were not only described and monitored at a few sites but at the drainage system scale, from a small headwater channel down to the main river channel. The thermal, cryologic, and hydrological interactions between various steep channels of the Montmorency River watershed were analyzed. These links form what is referred to as the watershed continuum. Each chapter of this thesis is an independent publication that includes an introduction, a literature review, a conclusion, and a list of references. The first four articles present a topic that complements previous chapters. The sum of these chapters forms a comprehensive review of the ice processes taking place in steep channels as the qualitative description progressively evolves into a quantitative analysis. The last chapter (article) presents a global conceptual model on river ice types and processes taking place in any fluvial setting in any climate.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||19 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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