Gestion de la chaine opératoire de traitement des peaux et implication socioéconomique de la femme dorsétienne (Detroit d'Hudson, Nunavik). Ethnoarchéologie, tracéologie et analyse de genre

Authors: Dionne, Marie-Michelle
Advisor: Woollett, James
Abstract: To this day, Dorset culture continues to be the subject of numerous debates in the field of Arctic prehistory, regarding its exact définition, the methods it used to establish itself, its expansion, and its disappearance from the eastern portion of the Canadian Arctic, as well as its characteristic socioeconomic organization. An understanding of the chaînes opératoires related to their material culture represents a privileged path to access a universe of technical and socioeconomic choices. By following the ethnographical documentation, we consider that the analysis of the skins working process, for the purpose of producing the garments and equipment necessary to survive in an Arctic environment, could provide access to methods to manage the different phases of this technical activity in time and space, in addition to showing the nature of female contributions throughout seasonal cycles of resources availability. This study demonstrates that, by looking at the différences and similarities gathered through a comparison between the management methods of production processes to treat animal skins used by the Inuit and Dorset cultures, it is possible to suggest a relevant model of the socioeconomic organization of the latter, as well as to approach the nature of their underlying social and gender relations. Being subject to a seansonal cyle of availability and access to resources, while experiencing material needs équivalent to those of the Inuit, the Dorset peoples were able to create a particular method for managing their technical activities and their social relationships, consistent with a cultural and social reality that differs from the one experienced by their successors. A combination of use-wear analyses (identification of the use of tools in chert and quartz) and spatial analyses, completed by an analysis of gender relationships, allows the data necessary in this type of study to be generated. The three archaeological sites chosen are located along the southern coastline of the Hudson Strait in Nunavik. The cultural period covered by these sites covers the transitional phase from ancient to récent Paleo-Eskimo (Pita KcFr-5/2800-2600 B.P.), as well as the one knows as the Dorset phase (Tivi KcFr-8A/2600-1000 B.P. and Tayara KbFk-7/2125-1186 B.P.). Keywords: Paleo-Eskimo, Dorset, skin process chaîne opératoire, lithic analysis, use-wear analysis, archaeological experiments, ethno-archaeology, gender analysis, household analysis, seasonal cycle, tools function, microblades.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 19 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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