Étude des éléments régulateurs « cis » et « trans » impliqués dans la stabilité du transcrit de l'amastine au stade intracellulaire chez « Leishmania »
|Abstract:||The Leishmania genus encompasses protozoan parasites which are transmitted through the bite of an insect vector and are responsible for leishmaniasis. The Leishmania life cycle alternates between promastigote forms within the gut of the insect vector and amastigotes which multiply in the phagolysosomal vacuoles of the mammalian host’s macrophages. Delta-amastins are part of a multigenic family of membrane proteins that potentially act in parasite virulence. One of the delta-amastin's exclusive expression in the intracellular stage is mediated by mRNA accumulation and translation stimulation, both taking place in the amastigote stage. The aim of this thesis is to characterize the mechanisms implicated in the differential expression of delta-amastin mRNA. Leishmania splits early in evolution from other eukaryotes and this split correlates with many functional differences, including the absence of transcriptional control of gene expression. Our hypothesis is that the presence of a uridine-rich element (URE) within the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR) of the transcript might be implicated in an mRNA decay mechanism. We reveal that the URE is responsible for a fast mRNA decay only in the promastigote stage, performed by an unusual deadenylation-independent pathway. We next identified an Alba domain protein, LiAlba20, which binds to the delta-amastin mRNA in a region flanking the URE. Depletion of this protein leads to a reduced mRNA accumulation in the amastigote stage specifically. Therefore, we identified two complementary mechanisms taking part in the transcript’s differential expression. The Leishmania genome encodes a second Alba domain protein, LiAlba13. These proteins interact together, but LiAlba13 does not affect the delta-amastin mRNA level during the parasite life cycle. Alba domain proteins have a remarkable evolution, being involved in DNA stabilization in Archaea and subunits of the RNAses P/MRP complexes in higher eukaryotes. In addition, our data show that these proteins regulate stage-specific protein expression, which is in agreement with recent works in other protozoan parasites. Alba domain proteins are constitutively expressed in the cytoplasm of both parasite life cycle stages. Nevertheless, during the differentiation, those proteins accumulate in flagellar and nucleolus compartments, respectively described as sensor and stress response coordinators in higher eukaryotes. Our work suggests that the flagellum is implicated in the coordination of stage-specific transcript expression in response to stress in Leishmania.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||19 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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