Propriétés thérapeutiques de la cystamine pour la maladie de Parkinson : étude chez divers modèles animaux de la maladie

Authors: Gibrat, Claire
Advisor: Cicchetti, Francesca
Abstract: Current treatments for Parkinson disease (PD) are only symptomatic, that means that they relieve symptoms of the disease without intervening in its underlying functional disorders and therefore cannot prevent the neurodegenerative progression of PD. There is therefore a huge interest in developing ways to prevent the loss of neurons that characterizes this disease or otherwise change the pathology’s evolutionary course when it is already initiated. From this interest, we have chosen to focus our research on a compound suspected to possess neuroprotective properties in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. This compound is the cystamine. This molecule has already been recognized as a neuroprotective agent in animal models of Huntington disease (HD), another neurodegenerative disease resulting in motor problems. It is in this context that fits my thesis, which aims to address the issue of cystamine’s therapeutic effects and mechanisms for PD. First, my work focused on the study of neuroprotective properties of cystamine and the identification of some mechanisms of action responsible for the beneficial effects observed in an MPTP-induced presymptomatic murine model of parkinsonism. Subsequently we studied the impact of cystamine, when the treatment was administered during an ongoing DA-neuronal degeneration, on behavioural, biochemical and pathological changes observed in two distinct neurotoxic mouse models of PD. Finally we stated the optimal efficient doses of cystamine, addressed the identification of intermediate molecules involved in the cystamine’s action and checked their transport to the brain. Briefly, our investigations confirm not only the neuroprotective aptitudes of cystamine when administered before the induction of the pathology but also demonstrate its capacity to stop an ongoing neurodegenerative process (neurorescue) and even partly reverse motor deficiencies. We have shown that these beneficial effects are associated, in particular, to a fine regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as well as a modulation of apoptotic factors and pro-inflammatory cytotoxic compounds. These approaches have also enabled us to highlight the glial cells as important mediators of the cystamine’s beneficial effects and the extent of the doses tested allowed the identification of the optimal doses for this compound’s efficiency. Our work finally points the cysteamine as the major intermediate involved in the cystamine’s therapeutic action and demonstrates its ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) in vivo. Our latest publications as well as our preliminary results on the therapeutic power of cystamine demonstrate the relevance of the proposed studies and offer a sound basis for the continuation on the translational research on this molecule.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 19 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/24357
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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