Caractérisation de la taille des particules et de leur vitesse de chute en décantation primaire

Authors: Bel Hadj, Imen
Advisor: Lessard, PaulVanrolleghem, Peter A.
Abstract: The primary clarifier is an important element of primary treatment of wastewater. It is based on the principle of gravity settling to remove suspended solids. The evaluation of the performance of primary clarifiers has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental studies. Primary clarifier performance depends on both the physical properties of the clarifier (hydraulic retention time, etc.), and characteristics of the suspended particles (size, density and settling velocity). Determining the velocity of particles is a key element to improve the performance of primary clarifiers. Indeed, the physical characterization of TSS by experimental study remains necessary and is the subject of this thesis. Two main aspects were considered: the applicability of the ViCAs protocol for the determination of the distribution of the particle settling velocity at the influent and effluent of the primary clarifier and the possibility to develop a protocol for measuring the size distribution of these particles. The results were used to determine the median settling rate of wastewater particles V50. In dry weather, V50 does not vary from one station to another. It fluctuated between 0.75 and 0.9 m /h. On the other side, V50 is proportional to the TSS concentration of the wastewater, which reflects the conditions in the sewer, ranging from 0.65 to 4.5 m / h. To determine the size distribution of the particles in the wastewater at the inlet and at the outlet of the primary clarifier, the FBRM technique (Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement) was used. The work was carried out in two steps: the first step was devoted to develop a protocol for measuring the particle size distribution. This protocol should be appropriate to both the technique used and the nature of the sample. The representativeness of the particle size depends on the cycle time and the repeatability of measurement depends on the mixing rate of the sample and the scanning speed of the laser beam. Also, the concentration of the sample influences the results and the performance of the FBRM technique. So, the protocol must take in account all these parameters when selecting the suitable measurement conditions. The second step consisted in applying the two protocols to the same samples, the settling velocity of particles with ViCAs and the particle size distribution with FBRM. The particle size distribution varies greatly from one wastewater treatment plant to another. It also depends on weather conditions such as rain. For effluent, the distribution of size of the particles varies depending on the hydraulic load of the primary clarifier. The results confirm the interest of using FBRM and ViCAs tests to interpret particle settling velocity distributions from one site to another. The results show the existence of a relationship between the settling velocity and particle size.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 19 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/24329
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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