Biopouvoir et nihilisme à partir de l'oeuvre de Michel Foucault

Authors: Amironesei, Razvan
Advisor: Clain, Olivier
Abstract: The objective of this dissertation is to examine the contemporary formation of a nihilism of biopower from a critical analysis of Michel Foucault’s work. We begin by formulating a genealogy of his notion of power, doubled by a critique of his treatment of disciplinary violence. In this context, we show that violence is inextricably linked to the « real » of disciplinary power, which is unrepresentable in itself and that one must understand in terms of a immanent and permanent form of « excess ». Second, this genealogy of power allows to put forward our analysis of contemporary biopolitics. We show that the object of biopolitics is not defined by the necessary intervention on the organic mass of living populations as Foucault suggests, but is rather the effect of a process of continuous production and subjectification of a « bios », seen as the emergence of a specific form of life elaborated at the intersection of practices of freedom and a politics of coercion. Third, this nihilism of disciplinary power and biopolitics is analyzed from a theological-political injunction of infinite perfectibility of « bios ». Thus, our concept of nihilism does not involve a axiological depreciation of life but rather is a mechanism of power which « affirms » quasi-exhaustively the way of life of a biopolitical individual. The modality of resistance to nihilism is discussed through the critical investigation of the foucaldian notion of withdrawal or distanciation of the self from itself (la déprise de soi). This notion along with the « loss of the self » are conceptualized not as a form of liberation from the nihilism of biopower, but rather as a potential transformation of its contemporary expression.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 19 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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