Les enképhalines et la neurobiologie du sel : caractérisation électrophysiologique, neuroanatomique et fonctionnelle
|Abstract:||In rats, extracellular sodium (Na+) variations are detected by neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MNPO) due to the presence of NaX channels. First, we wanted to determine the electrical properties of MnPO Na+ sensor neurons using electrophysiological recordings. We demonstrate an increase in the excitability of Na+ sensors, probably due to a decrease in ionic channels responsible for spike frequency adaptation and an increase in the ionic channels sustaining time-dependent membrane rectification. Since our laboratory demonstrated a modulation of Na+ sensors excitability by enkephalins (ENK) and mu-opioid receptors (mu-OR) system for an acute sodium deficit, so we wanted to demonstrate an enhancement in this neuronal excitability during repeated sodium depletion. Our results demonstrate that repeated sodium depletion induced desensitization of Na+ sensors and NaX channels expression. However, Na+ sensors show a hyperexcitability in response to three Na+ deficits that appears to be mitigated by the overexpression of functional mu-OR. Then, we wanted to determine the brain regions releasing ENK within the MNPO by injecting a fluorescent retrograde tracer. Our data report the parabrachial nucleus and the nucleus of solitary tract as the main ENK sources to MNPO; the bed nucleus of stria terminalis and the paraventricular nucleus as moderate ENK projections. This ENK release could initiate salt appetite in response to sodium deficit. Since salt appetite is a motivated behavior and some studies reported an enhanced salt appetite named salt sensitization, so we wanted to correlate ENK and/or mu-OR expression in reward circuit and salt sensitization. We show that salt sensitization is not a universal phenomenon in rats and that it is correlated with a decreased mu-OR expression in the ventral pallidum (VP). In addition, mu-OR expression in the VP is a fundamental requisite to the development of salt sensitization.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||19 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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