Manger avec sa tête ou selon ses sens : perceptions et comportements alimentaires

Authors: Gravel, Karine
Advisor: Lemieux, SimoneProvencher, Véronique
Abstract: While the prevalence of obesity has increased in the population, the thin-idealization can lead to concerns about body weight. Dieting is a common practice, especially among women. Even if a small weight loss has positive effects in the short term on obesity-related problems, success of energy-restricted diets is negligible over the long term. Losing weight is not without consequence, since some physiological adaptations can occur and persist over time, and may promote weight regain after diet-induced weight loss. One psychological consequence of dieting may be described as the perceived deprivation related to cognitive restraint, i.e. feeling of not eating what or as much as one would like. Energy-restricted diet and restrictive approach to lose weight show limits and this fact leads to consider effective alternatives in the long term. It is in this context that the work of the present thesis has been conducted, through: 1) an experimental study among 352 men and women; and 2) a randomized clinical trial among 50 restrained women. The first study focused on the cognitive perceptions of foods and the purposes were to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake, as well as the influence of gender, body weight and the level of restrained eating on these variables. The results showed that nutrition claims were effective in changing perceived “healthiness” and “fatteningness” of a food, but these changes in perceptions did not translate into a change in the food behaviors, as measured by food intake. The second study focused on the sensory perceptions of food and the purposes were to investigate whether a sensory-based intervention can influence eating-related attitudes and behaviors, reliance on physical signals for hunger and satiety, as well as the number and the type of terms used to describe a food. The results have shown that the sensory intervention has improved some eating-related attitudes and behaviors, without exacerbating other undesirable behaviors such as restrained eating. Then, the sensory-based intervention has also helped restrained women to be more objective about food, which may facilitate a more intuitive approach to eating. The results of this work suggest that the cognitive dimension of food should not be overrated at the expense of the sensory dimension.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 19 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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