Développement et utilisation d'une puce de capture d'exons pour l'étude à large spectre de régions génomiques divergentes entre populations sympatriques de grand Corégone (Coregonus clupeaformis)

Authors: Gagnon-Hébert, François Olivier
Advisor: Bernatchez, Louis
Abstract: The fundamental process of speciation allows the emergence of an astonishing diversity on Earth. One of the main challenges in evolutionary biology is to understand and document the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying this diversity observed in nature. The establishment of these mechanisms can be extremely rapid when a species colonizes new environments, which gives birth to niche specialization. On the genetic level, this population divergence appears by the emergence of heterogeneous barriers to gene flow in the genome. Lake Whitefish species pairs in North America represent a good model to study the ongoing process of speciation given its particular evolutionary situation. Various lakes in northeastern North America harbor sympatric populations of dwarf (limnetic) and normal (benthic) whitefish showing clear signs of morphological and genetic divergence. In this study, we have taken advantage of recent biotechnological developments in order to identify and document genomic regions of divergence between whitefish ecotypes. The objectives were to i) develop an exon capture chip, ii) enrich and capture genomic regions from multiple samples in natural populations, iii) assemble and annotate a maximum of captured genes and, ultimately, iv) document the extent of genetic differentiation between whitefish ecotypes. This new approach available with the technology of sequence capture allowed us to specifically capture and assemble 2,728 genes (~10% of the genome) to document on a large scale the extent of genetic differentiation between both ecotypes. In total, 267 SNP loci, located in 210 genes, were significantly divergent. This vast array of genes associated to many different biological processes potentially and partly explains the ecological divergence between whitefish ecotypes. Results suggest a greater role of regulation of gene expression and the role of many changes, each of small effect, as explaining early divergence between dwarf and normal whitefish, compared to functional mutations in the protein coding regions.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 19 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/24013
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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