Soudage de bois feuillus par friction rotationnelle
|Advisor:||Cloutier, Alain; Pizzi, Antonio; Stevanovic-Janezic, Tatjana|
|Abstract:||Gluing is a valid and extensively used alternative to paneling in the furniture industry. However, adhesives, which are generally produced by the petrochemical industry, require curing times (up to 24 h) and multiple handling, which limits the production flow and flexibility required for customized production. Moreover, they are generally derived from non-renewable fossil resources, making the end product expensive from both an ecological and economic standpoint. They also pose a recovery problem, as they are considered a source of contamination in biomass energy methods and wooden waste recycling. Wood welding can shortens the production cycle and reduces dependence on the petrochemical industry. By replacing synthetic resins with the intrinsic lignin binders present in lignocellulosic fibre materials, the depletion of fossil resources could be abated. Wood, which is a renewable, CO2 neutral raw material, can play a key role in sustainable development and have a significant impact on responsible residual waste management. This study examines the suitability of wood welding technology for producing composite panels for furniture applications with two Canadian hardwood species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). The specific objectives of the present study were: to define optimal wood-dowel welding parameters for two North American hardwood species frequently used for indoor appearance products: sugar maple and yellow birch; to produce wood-welded panels made from sugar maple and yellow birch using a specifically designed panelling machine; to assess the flexural properties of the wood-welded panels, considering the required load-bearing capacity for a typical standard panel used for furniture components; to assess the performance of the wood-welded panels at standard moisture conditions and after humidity cycling; to investigate chemical changes occurring at the welding interface; and to determine the gases released during welding under conditions of optimised welding parameters. High-speed rotation-induced mechanical friction wood-dowel welding was performed using a panelling machine specifically designed at the Centre de Recherche Industrielle du Québec. A comparative analysis of wood-dowel welding parameters was performed. The investigated parameters for both species were grain orientation (tangential or radial), vi rotational speed (1000 rpm, 1500 rpm, and 2500 rpm) and insertion speed (12.5 mm s-1, 16.7 mm s-1, and 25.0 mm s-1) for 36 possible combinations. Ten samples were prepared for a total of 360 wood welded specimens. Optimal welding mechanical properties were determined from the dowel withdrawal strength using a standard tensile strength test. Temperature profile measurements at the interface during rotational wood-dowel welding were also carried out. Results revealed a significant interaction between species, rotational speed, and insertion speed. Sugar maple produced wood joints with higher withdrawal strength than yellow birch. The best results for sugar maple and yellow birch were obtained with a rotational speed of 1000 rpm. A 25 mm s-1 insertion speed produced significantly stronger welded joints in sugar maple than at 12.5 mm s-1. For yellow birch, a 16.7 mm s-1 insertion speed provided the best results. Both species and rotational speed had a significant effect on peak temperature at the interface during welding. Peak welding temperatures with optimal parameters were 244˚C and 282˚C for sugar maple and yellow birch, respectively. This study examined the suitability of wood welding technology for producing composite panels for furniture applications with sugar maple and yellow birch. For each species, twelve 30 mm x 225 mm x 300 mm panels were manufactured using a panelling machine specifically designed for rotational wood-dowel welding with optimized parameters. Six edge-glued panels of the same size were manufactured from each species using a non-structural polyvinyl acetate (PVA) adhesive and tested for comparative purposes. The experimental program included three-point bending at 255-mm span and visual inspection of the panels to assess performance at standard moisture conditions and after an aging cycle with variable relative humidity. Cycling conditions were 20 °C and 80% relative humidity (RH) and 20 °C and 20% RH. Wood-welded panel bending properties were not affected by wood species, with average load at break of 1.79 kN and 1.70 kN for yellow birch and sugar maple, respectively. Fractures consistently occurred in the dowels as splintering tension, and no slippage was observed along the welded interface. No distortion was observed in wood-welded panels following humidity cycling. The cycling did not negatively affect the panel’s bending properties. Edge splitting was observed in both wood-welded and glued panels due to wood vii slat shrinkage in response to dry conditions. The results confirm that wood-dowel welding could be suitable for producing panels from certain North American species. Thermochemical changes during wood-dowel welding were investigated. The original reference wood sample and the welded interface between two bonded wood pieces, a dowel and a substrate, were compared to explain differences in mechanical properties between species. Pyrolysis gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used. The gases emitted during wood welding were determined by Py-GC/MS and gas chromatography coupled with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector (GC-TCD/FID). The results of this investigation showed that thermal treatment of birch and maple wood degrades hemicelluloses through acid hydrolysis and dehydration mechanism and affects lignin polymer through depolymerisation reactions. The gas emission results show similar proportions of non-condensable gases for the two studied species. Most of the volatile compounds identified during pyrolysis were non-toxic products derived from degradation of wood polymers. No carbon monoxide was produced during welding, and only traces of hydrogen and carbon dioxide were present. The proportion of detected volatile organic compounds was relatively low and below the lower exposure limits. Hence, wood welding appears to be an ecological technique for assembling furniture components and other applications, and is not harmful for human health.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||19 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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