Internalisation cellulaire de nanoparticules d'oxydes métalliques à base de manganèse et de gadolinium, pour l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM)

Authors: Tremblay, Mélanie
Advisor: Fortin, Marc-André
Abstract: To allow the application of new medical technologies such as regenerative cell therapy to humans, it is essential to be able to localize the tissue-implanted cells in vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique of choice because of its excellent anatomical resolution. On the other hand, use of a contrast agent is required to label and keep track of the implanted cells as their intrinsic contrasts make them difficult to distinguish from surrounding tissue. Negative contrast agents like iron oxides are the most often considered tracking cells in vivo. A problem appears when quantification or determination of the exact location of a cell implantation is needed. Indeed, the presence of a negative artifact far exceeding the volume occupied by the cells compromises the accuracy of the technique. For these reasons, this project focuses on developing a methodology to label cancer cells using a positive contrast agent for MRI. This research project aims at evaluating the potential of manganese oxide (MnO) and gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles as contrast agents for cell labeling. Nanoparticles synthesized by co-workers were used in this project. The master's project described here consists of three (3) components: 1) development of a valid protocol of elemental analysis of Mn and Gd quantification in labeled cells, 2) development of a procedure for quantification of the MRI signal generated by cells labeled with paramagnetic contrast agent, and 3) demonstrating of the in vivo track ability by MRI, cells labeled with a paramagnetic agent. This project was punctuated by measures of cell viability and cell visualisation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to demonstrate the internalization of contrast agents into cells. The labeled cells were visualized by MRI in the form of cell pellets of various sizes, and implanted in mice by stereotactic methods to achieve a monitoring of cell proliferation in vivo. These studies measure the MRI signal generated by cancer cells labeled by MnO and Gd2O3 nanoparticles, using "T1 weighted" sequences. These studies show that paramagnetic nanoparticles can detect tens of thousands of locally implanted cells ( 20 000). This inherent limit should be taken into account in the settlement procedures using Gd and Mn based labels.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 19 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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