Nouvelles approches pour la détermination de la sévérité de la sténose aortique à partir des vitesses du flux sanguin mesurées par imagerie de résonance magnétique

Authors: Garcia Flores, Julio
Advisor: Kadem, LyesLarose, ÉricPibarot, Philippe
Abstract: Aortic valve stenosis is the most common cardiovascular disease after coronary artery diseases and hypertension. Doppler-echocardiography (DE) is the standard method for the evaluation of the severity of aortic stenosis (AS). Valve effective orifice area (EOA) measured by the continuity equation is one of the most frequently used stenotic indices. However, TTE measurement of aortic valve EOA is not feasible or not reliable in a significant proportion of patients. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as a non-invasive alternative method to evaluate EOA using velocity measurements. The objectives of this thesis were: 1) To compare the DE-derived EOA and CMR-derived EOA using the continuity equation (CE) and 2) To propose new CMR methods to assess EOA and the AS severity; 3) To determine the feasibility of the measurement of the parameters of valve opening and closing kinetics by CMR and 4) To validate new CMR methods to estimate vorticity magnitude. Our work showed a good agreement between the DE-derived EOA and CMR-derived EOA using the CE. This agreement was, however, only due to error compensations. We therefore developed and validated a new CMR method based on the acoustical source term (AST) to estimate the valve EOA and then to introduce a simplified version not requiring vorticity field derivation. This study showed that AST-derived EOA calculated from CMR velocity field measurements is a reliable method to estimate valve EOA and can be useful to confirm AS severity when DE examination is inconclusive. Hence, CMR provides a non-invasive and reliable alternative to DE for the quantification of AS severity. Our work also demonstrated the excellent feasibility and reproducibility of CMR for the measurement of valve kinetic parameters in patients with AS. Furthermore, these parameters compare favorably with conventional indices of stenosis severity to predict risk of poor prognosis. However, the use of CE to estimate EOA may be subject to measurement errors. Furthermore, a validation of new CMR methods for estimate vorticity magnitude was presented. Vorticity and vortical structures play a fundamental role affecting the evaluation of energetic aspects of cardiovascular function. In conclusion, our work demonstrates the feasibility, reliability, and utility of new CMR methods and parameters to identify and quantify the dysfunction of native. New CMR methods estimating vorticity were validated in vivo.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2012
Open Access Date: 18 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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