Étude comparative de monticules carbonatés phanérozoïques : sédimentologie, diagenèse précoce et modes d'accrétion
|Abstract:||Three mechanisms of carbonate accretion can be observed in Phanerozoic mud-rich carbonate mounds: biomineralization which refers to skeletogenesis, organomineralization correspond to by mineral precipitation that involves a non-living organic substrate and finally marine cement precipitation formed by fluid flow-through. This thesis presents an assessment of the relative importance of these three main accretionary processes through time using a detailed study of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and modern mud-rich localities, all identified as carbonate mounds. At the Chute Montmorency locality (Middle Ordovician, Quebec), bioherms are lenticular bodies where in situ bryozoans dominate the bioclastic fraction. The reefal framework built by trepostomes bryozoans provides large growth cavities hosting polymud fabrics. Accretionary mechanisms rely mainly on biomineralization whereas organomineralization remains of minor importance and takes place within intra-reefal cryptic spaces. Cementation is absent. At the Anticosti Island locality (Lower Silurian, Quebec), mud-rich buildups display two distinct facies both characterized by the abundance of marine cement. The crinoid-fenestrate bryozoan mudstone-wackestone facies stands out by its volumetrically important polymud fabric as well as both shelter cavities and stromatactis. In this facies, biomineralization is limited whereas organomineralization and, to a lesser extent, marine cementation within stromatactis control the net accretion. Regarding the fenestrate bryozoan cementstone facies, the contribution of biomineralization remains minor and organomineralization is absent. In this case, net accretion is the result of extensive marine cementation. At the Foum Zidet locality (Lower Jurassic, Morocco), mounds display large amounts of macroscopically preserved, calcified siliceous sponges locally used as substrate by encrusting bryozoans and polychètes. Thus, mound accretion combines organomineralization and, to a lesser extent, biomineralization whereas marine cement precipitation is lacking. At the Jebel Assameur locality (Mid Jurassic, Morocco), mud-rich buildups display important amounts of scleractinian corals combined with a significant volume of epilithic bryozoan, annelids worms and calcified siliceous sponges. Thus, accretionary processes consist of biomineralization that develop classical patch reefs whereas organomineralization is restricted to cryptic spaces. Cement precipitation remains minor. The modern case study, the Pen Duick escarpment (offshore Morocco) locality, with its living and non-living deep-sea coral mounds, offers an excellent setting to explore whether organomineralization takes place in modern deep-water coral mounds. Reactive fluid that combines protein-like fluorescence (peak SR) with fresh, humic compounds (peak M2) is present at the surface, to a minor degree at ~ 20 cm depth, and in a distinct layer at 100 cm depth. However, no ISOM-related authigenic carbonate was observed. Hence, mound accretion at Pen Duick escarpment is mainly controlled by biomineralization whereas the development of organomineralization and marine cementation can only be assumed if relevant conditions occur along their diagenetic evolution (e.g. decrease in argillaceous material, enhanced bottom current). Our comparative approach was further extended to fifteen case studies from the mudmound literature chosen to document the mud-rich carbonate mound variability in space and time. This comparative study illustrates how mud-rich carbonate mounds sharing similar geometry, macro and micro fabrics can evolved from the varying input of the three main accretionary processes. Hence, mound accretionary mechanisms are not constant through time and mud-rich carbonate mounds (commonly named mudmound) are indeed a morphological convergence.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||18 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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