La diagénèse d'enfouissement et l'évolution des fluides dans un contexte structural
|Advisor:||Kirkwood, Donna; Neuweiler, Fritz|
|Abstract:||The Atlas basins of Morocco expose the history of two closely related Jurassic intracontinental rift basins corresponding to the Middle and the High Atlas. These sedimentary basins represent one of the best examples of extensive/compressive tectonic regime on the west coast of Africa and although they have a quite similar sedimentary history they have undergone different thermal evolution. This work is to explore the effect of these differences in terms of diagenesis and fluid flow. Several tectonic and sedimentary studies on the Atlas basins exist though very few of them focuse on the characterization of diagenetic processes. This study is based on an integrated petrographic and geochemical approach to further our basic understanding on petrogenesis and diagenetic fluid compositions. It focuses on diagenetic processes and fluid compositions related to different diagenetic stages in three locations representing: 1) the depocentre (loc. Aït Moussa); 2) a major fault zone (loc. Tunnel de la Légion); and 3) the carbonate platform (loc. Aït Athmane). Diagenetic stages are divided into three stages (eodiagenesis, mesodiagenesis and telodiagenesis) using stratiform and tectonic stylolites as markers. Relative chronology of fracture generations and stylolites based on cross-cutting relationships enables to assign fracture generations to each diagenetic stages. Detailed paragenetic and geochemical analysis on fracture and pore-filling cements help to establish the paragenetic sequences and to illustrate the relationship between different diagenetic mineral phases in a time/space-resolved petrogenetogram. Geochemical analyses have been done in ordre to investigate the nature and the origin of diagenetic fluids circulating in the study areas from the rifting period until the formation of the Atlas Mountains. Various diagenetic processes including cementation, dissolution, compaction, recrystallization, replacement, dolomitisation, and dedolomitisation are observed at the different locations. At Aït Athmane, eodiagenetic stage is essentially controlled by sea level fluctuations while telodiagenetic stage was tectonically controlled by the circulation of ascending fluids through major faults enriched in lead and hydrocarbon. The thermal maturity model based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro 0.85 and 1.34 %) analysis on samples from Aït Moussa indicates a maximum burial depth around 3.7 km, reached during Upper Cretaceous to Early Paleogene, with a maximum diagenetic temperature of approximatly 120ºC. Tmax values calculated from argillaceous limestones at Tunnel de la Légion range from 470ºC to 500ºC indicating overmature sedimentary successions in the area. Both Atlas rift basins contain a rift-type and a platform-type petroleum system, a situation that also applies to the numerous Atlantic-type, margin-related rift basins that formed during Triassic – Jurassic rifting along western Africa. The petroleum system of the Atlas basins is fairly well documented, but certain aspects as hydrocarbon generation and migration stages are poorly understood. At the locality of Aït Moussa, hydrocarbon generation stage is recorded as fluorescent inclusions in dolomite crystals (dolomite-2 and -3) and starts in the Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous (approx. 150 Ma). Hydrocarbon fluids remained normally pressured until the opening of late diagenetic fractures during Late Eocene tectonic compression. At the locality of Tunnel de la Légion, hydrocarbon generation stage begins with the opening of conjugate fractures during Late Cretaceous – Early Paleocene and continue until the begining of tectonic compression (Late Eocene). At the locality of Aït Athmane, hydrocarbon generation stage is synchronous to the opening of the second generation of fractures and continues after the begining of tectonic compression. The GC and GC-MS chromatograms of samples taken from the three location shows a very similar n-alkanes pattern with a maximum at n-C17 and n-C19. Biomarker analyses revealed that the origin of the organic matter in the localities of Aït Moussa and Tunnel de la Légion is marine (kerogene type II and I) and the small differences are related to thermal maturation and to migration. An exploration strategy should consider the begining of hydrocarbon migration stages and associated fractures relative to the rock reservoir formation.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||18 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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