Contribution à l'amélioration de l'utilisation alimentaire du tourteau de canola : Décoloration par du peroxyde d'hydrogène et impact sur le produit

Authors: El Kadiri, Ihsane
Advisor: Aider, MohammedKhelifi, Mohamed
Abstract: This research work was aimed to study the possibility of enhancing the use of canola meal as a source of food ingredients. The main objectives of this research work were to discolour the meal and to evaluate the product properties as well as the effect of the treatment on the extractability of the total dry matter, protein profile, total polyphenolics content, and overall acceptability of the end product. The constant growth of world population requires governments in all countries to develop food policies to support the nutritional needs of populations. Among the strategic means adopted, we can found the use of by-products of food processing practices for human nutritional needs. In this context, vegetable oils crushing industry provides residues which are rich in fibres and proteins. This makes them excellent raw materials for the development of new ingredients for the food industry. Canola meal is a by-product of de-oiling process of canola seeds. For example, the production of canola meal in Canada in 2007 was estimated at 2050 metric tonnes. On a dry basis, canola meal contains approximately 12-20% (w/w) carbohydrates and 35-45% (w/w) proteins. The well balanced and favourable amino acid composition of the canola meal makes this latter a potential source of proteins for human nutrition. However, high levels of antinutritional factors such as glucosinolates and phytates and the presence of phenolics prevent canola meal from being fully used in food products. Phenolics in canola meal are responsible of the dark color of the food matrices in which they are used, bitter taste, and strong undesirable smell. The level of phenolics compounds in canola meal is at least an order of magnitude higher than in soybean meal, and has to be decreased before the meal can be used as a source of food ingredients. The meal color must also be significantly improved. Enhancing the overall quality of the canola meal would contribute to both higher nutritional and monetary values of this material. Until now, there is no completely successful large scale technology for decreasing the phenolic content in canola meal and for improving its color, bitterness, and strong smell. The prupose of the present work was to develop a novel approach to improve the use of canola meal and its derivatives (proteins and fibres) as ingredients in food applications. The canola meal was successfully discolored (bleached) following a treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions. The meal color was significantly improved and passed from L* = 45 up to L* = 78. The treatment with hydrogen peroxide allowed enhancing the extractability of the total dry matter in aqueous solutions. The initial meal extractability was approximately 22% whereas the meal treated with hydrogen peroxide was characterized by an extractability of the total dry matter of 83%. The increased solubility of the total dry matter, including proteins and fibres, will enhance the bioavailability of these ingredients. Total phenolic content was lowered by at least 93%. The extracted dry matter was characterized by very good organoleptic parameters (color, smell, and taste). The output of this research work will hopefully contribute to solving nutritional problems worldwide.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2012
Open Access Date: 18 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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