Contrôle physiologique et pharmacologique de la biosynthèse des leucotriènes

Authors: Boudreau, Luc
Advisor: Flamand, NicolasSurette, Marc E.
Abstract: Inflammation is a natural process of the human body’s defence against pathogens. Although the immune response is primarily favourable to the human body, it can also be very harmful. In fact, an uncontrolled and excessive inflammatory response (e.g. chronic inflammation) can result in chronic pathologies such as asthma, atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. One enzyme that plays an important role in certain chronic inflammatory pathologies is the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), which is responsible for the biosynthesis of powerful lipid mediators called leukotrienes. The biological role of leukotrienes includes chemotaxis, bronchoconstriction and vascular permeability. The present thesis focuses at better understanding the physiological and pharmacological regulation of 5-LO, either with natural endogenous molecules or with novel anti-inflammatory drugs. One particularly intriguing aspect of the human genome is the alternative splicing phenomenon. Indeed, it is estimated that between 70-80% of all human genes undergo alternative splicing. Therefore, we investigated if the ALOX5 gene, which codes for the 5 LO protein, underwent alternative splicing. We identified novel isoforms of the 5-LO protein in leukocyte Raji (B cells), THP-1 (monocytes), Reh (non B non T) and TA (B cells). In the second part of my studies, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of an active component from propolis of honeybee hives, known as caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). We also synthesized analogues of CAPE, some of which possess anti-inflammatory properties. Some of these compounds such as CAPE and its amid analogue, are novel 5-LO inhibitors that are either equipotent or more potent than the only clinically approved and commercially available 5-LO inhibitor zileuton. Since some adverse effects result from the clinical use of zileuton in some patient (liver toxicity), it is clear that there is room for improvement in regards to current 5-LO inhibitors.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2012
Open Access Date: 18 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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