Seasonal variation of seaweed components and novel biological function of fucoidan extracted from brown algae in Quebec
|Advisor:||Boulanger, Raynald; Turgeon, Sylvie|
|Abstract:||Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum are edible brown seaweed and abundantly available in Quebec. However, they have been neglected because of their unknown value and technical limitation in harvest. In order to validate their usefulness, chemical composition in seaweeds and starch digestive enzyme inhibition activity by fucoidan extracted from two seaweed species were investigated with different seasons. The major components in both seaweeds were in order: polysaccharide > minerals > protein > fucoidan > lipid > phenol, and their quantity was quite variable depending on harvesting timing. F. vesiculosus contained larger amount of proteins and minerals, while A. nodosum had relatively more polysaccharides. Therefore, F. vesiculosus are advantageous as a nutritional source. Especially, from A. nodosum harvested in July, a fucoidan having higher purity and better yield was obtained. Fucoidans from two seaweeds species inhibited α-glucosidase activity while, only fucoidan from A. nodosum could inhibit α-amylase activity. A. nodosum fucoidan was a more potent inhibitor than F. vesiculosus fucoidan for α-glucosidase with IC50 of 0.013 ~ 0.047 mg/mL, and for α-amylase with IC50 of 0.12 ~ 4.62 mg/mL depending on harvest month. To understand the key factors explaining the difference in α-amylase inhibition between A. nodosum fucoidan and F. vesiculosus fucoidan, structural characteristic was analyzed and compared with galactofucoidan as a control. From the obtained results, it is confirmed that smaller molecular weight (637 kDa) of A. nodosum fucoidan and the presence of sulfates are related to its inhibitory activity. It is proposed that small molecular weight permits to expose easily sulfate groups for interaction with α-amylase throughout electrostatic interactions, and therefore inhibiting its activity. In conclusion, brown seaweeds in Quebec have a considerable importance for nutrition and bioactive products. Fucoidan shows the inhibition activity for starch digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and its activity is different depending on seaweed species and harvesting period. Further understanding of the inhibitory mechanism by fucoidan can be useful to develop a functional ingredient to help preventing for Type-2 diabetes.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||18 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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