Implication de la voie de signalisation Src/Stat3 dans l'étiologie de l'hypertension artérielle pulmonaire

Authors: Paulin, Roxane
Advisor: Bonnet, Sébastien
Abstract: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an obstructive vasculopathy characterized by distal pulmonary arteries lumen obliteration and increased vascular resistances, leading to a rise in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and a compensatory right ventricular hypertrophy. Currently available therapies do not permit to reverse the established process and when the hypertrophy become insufficient, the right ventricle dilates and fails. This phenomenon is due to enhanced proliferation, survival and motility of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), which acquire a pseudo malignant phenotype. Our group previously described that the transcription factor NFAT (Nuclear factor of activated T-cells) is involved in these cellular disorders by increasing intracellular calcium level and enhancing proliferation; and by hyperpolarizing the mitochondrial membrane potential and decreasing mitochondrial-dependant apoptosis. In the Chapter 2, we demonstrated for the first time in the pulmonary vasculature, that STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) regulates directly NFATc2 expression and indirectly NFATc2 activity via the oncoprotein serine/threonine kinase Pim1 (Provirus integration site for Murine Moloney leukemia virus). In vitro and in vivo Pim1 inhibition (in the monocrotaline rat model) is associated with decreased NFATc2 activity and reversion of the malignant phenotype. Moreover, Pim1 deficient mice are resistant to monocrotaline or hypoxia-induced PAH. Finally, we demonstrated that Pim1 expression correlates with disease progression both in animal and human model. Thus, we underlined Pim1 as a potent therapeutic target and an interesting diagnosis tool. In the chapter 3, we showed that the signaling hub c-Src (sarcoma Schmidt-Ruppin A-2 viral oncogene homolog)/FAK (Focal adhesion kinase) is implicated in the regulation of the PASMCs pseudo malignant phenotype, in part by activating STAT3. FAK inhibition in vitro decreases PASMCs proliferation, survival and motility. In vivo, FAK inhibition is associated with decreased PAP and decreased vascular remodeling, making FAK as an interesting therapeutic target. In the chapter 4, we suggest dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) as another therapeutical option. This natural hormone is known to be beneficial in PAH through their vasodilating properties. We showed here that by inhibiting STAT3 activation, DHEA also has anti-proliferating properties. Therefore, clinical use of DHEA for PAH can be promising. During my PhD studies, I showed the critical implication of the Src/FAK/STAT3/Pim1 in PAH pathogenesis. I contributed to increase the knowledge on PAH pathogenesis and suggested some therapeutical solutions that can be useful to improve patient outcome.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2011
Open Access Date: 18 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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