L'innovation ouverte dans le cas des PME manufacturières

Authors: Idrissi Fakhreddine, Moulay Othman
Advisor: Amara, Nabil
Abstract: Recent developments regarding the nature of the process of innovation have led us to try to better understand this process among firms, in particular among small and medium enterprises (SMEs). These recent developments indicate the interactive and open nature of innovation which is represented by the model of open innovation, according to Chesbrough (2003a; b). In this model, firms spend little on R& D and nevertheless are able to innovate : they rely on the knowledge and expertise of a wide range of actors and external sources (Laursen et Salter, 2006). The open innovation model has become, according to the report of the 2009 CST of, one of the major trends in the world. In its report entitled : Innovation ouverte, enjeux et défis pour le Québec, this institution promotes the benefits of this innovation model and proposes to accelerate its adoption by Quebec manufacturing firms. In this context, this thesis aims to contribute to this effort by studying a particular aspect of the open innovation model, namely openness. Introduced by Laursen and Salter in 2004, openness is a concept that primarily reflects the number (breadth) and intensity (depth) of the external sources of information used by the firm in the development or improvement of its products or processes. Openness has been widely studied in the context of large U.S. (Chesbrough, 2003a; b) and European companies (Laursen et Salter, 2004; 2006; Criscuolo et al., 2006; Reichstein et Salter, 2006; Lichtenthaler, 2008a). In the context of SMEs, the studies concerned with openness are still scanty, with only a few studies from the Republic of Korea and Europe. In Canada, especially Quebec, studies that focus on openness in SMEs are almost nonexistent. In this sense, it is necessary to fill this gap and to further explore the innovative behavior of SMEs under the care of the open innovation model. Innovation in SMEs, explained in part by the open innovation model, raises the complexity of the relations (Huizingh, 2011) between the different factors that traditionally explain innovation in SMEs. This need was at the origin of the first research objective in this thesis : 1. Study the determinants which explain the complex relationships that exist between the factors explaining innovation in SMEs under the care of the open innovation model. In addition to this objective, other gaps have been identified in the literature related to the open innovation model, including the second and third objectives of this research : 2. Study the degree of openness of SMEs through the dimensions of the breadth and depth, and the determinants related to varying degrees of openness. 3. Study the complementarity or substitution of SMEs to the openness towards the various sources of external information, and the determinants related to the openness towards these different sources. The results of this thesis and its contributions deducted from the three empirical parts are distributed according to the specific objectives that are raised, and these include : 1. The study of this first objective has led us to deepen our understanding of the theoretical approaches that would be complementary in the explanation of innovation in SMEs. In this sense, the literature review has led us to suggest an integrative conceptual framework which seems to us more appropriate to understand the complex relationships between the various factors which explain innovation in SMEs. It is primarily the open innovation model, the resource-based theory, and the regional innovation system approach. This is a very important theoretical contribution from this thesis. Also, the use of the path analysis has helped to empirically clarify the complex relationships between the determinants of innovation in SMEs. In particular, it is has shown that openness has a direct and indirect effect on the degree of novelty of the surveyed SMEs. The indirect importance of regional and national proximities through the openness on the degree of novelty in these firms has also been highlighted too. 2. The use of the cluster analysis based on the dimensions of openness, breadth and depth, has led to propose four classes of SMEs which differ by their degree of openness : closed SMEs, interactive SMEs, user SMEs and open SMEs. Moreover, in this empirical part of the thesis, by using multinomial and binary logistic regression models, it was possible to show that the variables related to regional and national proximities, as well as the variables related to the internal barriers to innovation, contribute very significantly to explain the probability that SMEs belong to a class of SMEs with a high degree of openness rather than to a class of SMEs with a low degree of openness. 3. The use of the structural equation model and of the Multivariate Probit (MVP) model has, on the one hand, confirmed our assumption related to the complementarity among the four categories of external sources of information (market sources, generally available information sources, research sources, and regional resources) and, on the other hand, the MVP model has confirmed the importance of national and regional proximities in the explanation of the openness to different categories of sources of external information. Finally, a general conclusion of this thesis is revealed in light of the results obtained in the three empirical parts of this thesis : in addition to the importance of openness for the innovation process of the surveyed SMEs, it should be noted that geographical proximity as considered in this thesis, is also important. In this sense, one can only hope for a major implication for policy makers concerned with policy innovation, involvement that could lead to the consideration, and as far as the promotion, of the crucial character of proximity, so that SMEs can get the maximum benefit from relationships with their close partners.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2011
Open Access Date: 18 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/22988
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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