Nanomatériaux à base d'oxyde de gadolinium : applications en imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM)

Authors: Guay-Bégin, Andrée-Anne
Advisor: Fortin, Marc-André
Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in medicine to achieve high resolution, in-depth anatomical images. MRI can also be used to detect cells injected in vivo and to track their migration. For this purpose, the cells cannot be clearly visualized in MRI without the use of contrast agents. Gadolinium (III) complexes are by far the most widely used contrast agents in clinical medicine because they provide a drastic enhancement of MRI signal in vascularized tissues. However, the vast majority of these chelates is poorly uptaken and retained into cells. In order to efficiently label cells, gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (Gd2O3) have been recently developed. Therefore, these particles, covered with diethylene glycol (DEG-Gd2O3), were used in the first part of this project to label cells. DEG-Gd2O3-labeled cells can be visualized in MRI, in vitro and in vivo (using the chicken embryo model). However, DEG-Gd2O3 particles aggregate in aqueous saline solution (cell culture medium) and at high concentration, they can impact on the cell proliferation. Molecules such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) can be used to remove DEG so as to improve the stability of the particles and to limit their cytotoxicity. In the course of this project, DEG-Gd2O3 particles were treated with three different polymers: PEG-phosphate, PEG-silane and PEG diacid. In order to determine the functional group that can react strongly with the rare-earth oxide, these polymers were grafted on both Gd2O3 particles and thin films. Different grafting methodologies were developed to identify the optimal reaction conditions. The physicochemical properties of the PEG-Gd2O3 particles and the PEG-treated surfaces were measured with different surface characterization techniques. In conclusion, this study shows that PEG-phosphate reacts more strongly with Gd2O3 nanomaterials compared to the other PEG derivatives. Moreover, PEG-phosphate-Gd2O3 particles have better physicochemical and relaxometric properties than all the other systems studied in this research project (particles covered with DEG, PEG-silane and PEG diacid). These particles might be considered in the future as a potential contrast agent for cellular MRI and could replace the products used currently (mainly iron oxides nanoparticles).
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2011
Open Access Date: 18 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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