Analyse structurale du système âme-semelles de poutrelles en bois à configuration en I

Authors: Grandmont, Jean-Frédéric
Advisor: Cloutier, AlainGendron, Guy
Abstract: Research and development of wood I-joist design has often relied on laboratory testing and on empirical approach. Oriented strand board (OSB) has been used successfully as web material but its behavior within the I-joist needs to better be defined in order to improve wood I-joist design. The overall objective of this study is to develop a model that would simulate the deflection and shear strain of a wood I-joist in bending and to develop a better understanding of the web properties impact on the overall I-joist bending behavior. This was pursued by specifying three specific objectives: • Identify web mechanical properties that should be determined experimentally due to their impact on I-joist deflection and shear strain. • Determine the OSB web mechanical properties, including their variability, required to develop a finite element model of wood I-joist bending behavior. • Determine the impact of OSB physical and mechanical properties variability on I-joists bending behavior. To determine which OSB properties have higher impact on I-joist shear strain and deflection, a sensitivity study was performed with a finite element method (FEM) based model. The OSB mechanical properties were changed in a numerical model from 50% to 200% of the reference value to determine their impact on web shear strain and I-joist deflection. The model was primarily sensitive to in-plane web shear stiffness, which changed I-joist deflection up to 23%. The model was also sensitive to the web tensile modulus of elasticity parallel and perpendicular to joist length. These properties changed I-joist deflection up to 2% and 1%, respectively. The important or sensitive OSB web mechanical properties were determined by a methodology developed to obtain reliable mechanical properties of I-joists OSB web, including variability. OSB panel samples were scanned by X-rays to measure in-plane density variation. Specimens were cut from pre-defined homogeneous density areas in three different orientations (parallel, perpendicular, and diagonal to the strong axis) to measure three basic elastic properties required for an elastic model of I-joists OSB web: modulus of elasticity (MOE) parallel and perpendicular to the panel’s strong axis and shear modulus (G). Given the required small specimen size, shear modulus was determined using a combination of in-plane tensile MOEs, including MOE at 45 degrees. The results showed a strong relationship between OSB density and small-scale mechanical properties: coefficients of determination (R2) varied between 0.57 and 0.79. This provided information on I-joist OSB web mechanical properties as a function of density for input into a numerical model. Properties showed considerable variability in the 600–900 kg/m3 density range, with a 207% increase in tensile modulus of elasticity in the parallel direction, 187% in the perpendicular direction, and 172% at 45°. The mechanics-based OSB shear modulus equation used proved to be reliable. Finally, to determine the impact of OSB mechanical properties variability on I-joists bending behaviour, a series of simulations were performed. The inclusion OSB web heterogeneous properties over wood I-joist behavior in bending was investigated. The shear strain in the web and the I-joist deflection from full scale experimental results were first compared with model output considering homogeneous OSB web. Results showed a good correlation between simulated and full scale experimental bending test results values with deflection differences ranging from 9 to 24%. However, the model overestimated the shear strain. These differences were potentially due to the OSB local variability of density and mechanical properties. Based on a previously established density/properties relationship and on web OSB in-plane density mapping, OSB property heterogeneity was considered in the model. Simulation results including heterogeneous OSB properties (n=100) were then compared with those considering homogeneous properties (n=100). Shear strain distribution was altered in the web and a small (less than 1%) increase in deflection was observed. Based on density measured across the OSB web thickness and on the established density/properties relationship, simulations were performed to evaluate the effect of the vertical density profile on the simulated I-joist. A 1% deflection increase was observed as well as a lateral displacement of the bottom flange.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2011
Open Access Date: 18 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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