Étude mécanistique de l'incorporation de la molécule de l'hôte HLA-DR par le VIH-1 : rôle de la protéine auxiliaire VPU et des microdomaines
|Advisor:||Cantin, Réjean; Tremblay, Michel J.|
|Abstract:||The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infects and replicates itself in the immune system cells. When it buds out, the virus covers itself with a part of the plasma membrane and then acquires some of the host membrane proteins. It is the case for the HLA-DR protein from the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) necessary for antigen presentation. Its viral incorporation increases the infectious potential and contributes to viral persistence. Vpu is an HIV-1 protein which contributes to the viral budding process. A recent study showed that Vpu could decrease the mature HLA-DR expression at the infected cell surface. Nevertheless, it is also known that Vpu modulates the mature HLA-DR acquisition by HIV-1. Those results could be explained by a control of the intracellular localization of HLA-DR and/or some HIV-1 structural protein by Vpu. In summary, Vpu could promote specific interactions between mature HLA-DR and HIV-1 while decreasing the general expression of mature HLA-DR at the cell surface. We wished to confirm the dual role of Vpu which is important in the viral pathogenesis by getting the mature HLA-DR incorporation advantages while short-circuiting its role in the normal antigen response. It is also accepted that the virus buds out from the infected cell lipid raft. These region are highly enriched with cholesterol and the preferential expression location of mature HLA-DR. With a Simvastatin™ treatment, the lipid raft are disrupt because this drug inhibit the synthesis of cholesterol, therefore down-modulating the mature HLA-DR expression at the cell surface. Using Simvastatin™ inform us on where the virus could possibly acquire the mature host molecule HLA-DR in its envelop. This research project allowed us to characterise the possible interactions between Vpu and HLA-DR that led to a better understanding of the mechanism by which Vpu modulates HLA-DR at the infected cell surface and its viral incorporation. The study conducted by confocal microscopy using multiple fluorescent tagging of Vpu and HLA-DR has led to the evidence of an interaction between Vpu and mature HLA-DR in an infected cell. The measurement of the cell surface expression of HLA-DR and its viral incorporation by flow cytometer and immunocapture techniques also allowed the confirmation of the Vpu modulation on HLA-DR expression. Finally, the Simvastatin™ treatment on infected cells allowed us to hypothesis that the mature HLA-DR acquisition was done at an earlier stage that the viral budding. To conclude, we also attempted to correlate the difference in the pathogenesis of some HIV-1 subtype with the sequence variability of Vpu between them: a link with a different subcellular localization of Vpu. The studies that have been performed in order to complete my master diploma have contributed to a better understanding of the acquisition mechanism of certain host molecules and their impact on different sub-types of HIV-1 pathogenesis. They also give substantial information on the roles of Vpu, a virus-encoded protein whose involvement in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains to be defined and on the acquisition mechanism of some host molecule by HIV-1. The results presented in this thesis will probably arouse an interest renewal for this protein and for the host molecule incorporation mechanism used by HIV-1.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||18 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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