Identification de marqueurs de pronostic impliqués dans l'angiogenèse et régulés par un mécanisme épigénétique dans le cancer du sein

Authors: Gagnon, Jean-François
Advisor: Brisson, JacquesMorin, Carol
Abstract: Purpose: Studies are now conducted to find new biomarkers to help clinicians diagnose and treat breast cancers. The purpose of my research project was to determine the prognostic value of DNA methylation markers of selected genes (PLAU (plasminogen activator, urokinase), RECK (reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs) and TIMP3 (TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3)) which are mainly involved in the process of angiogenesis. Methods and results: We studied a population of 254 patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 1983 and 1993, for which a part of the tumor specimens was fixed in Bouin and embedded in paraffin and the other part was frozen. The clinicopathological characteristics were available for these patients (age, body mass index, ER, PgR tumor size, histological grade, lymph node metastasis status, histological type and microvessel density). Prior to the analysis of specimens from the study population, we developed a quantitative approach to assess the methylation status of candidate genes. Once the DNA is isolated by laser-capture microdissection from frozen tumor specimens, it was treated with a methylation sensitive restriction enzyme and subjected to specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specificity, linearity and reproducibility of this approach have been clearly demonstrated by comparison with standard samples and cell lines. In addition, an automated immunohistochemical approach has been successfully evaluated showing that the expression of tumor markers on histological sections of tissues fixed in Bouin and embedded in paraffin, is similar to that of specimens fixed in neutral buffered formalin. This step was necessary to evaluate the expression of genes (ER, PgR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR, P63, ECAD) recognized for the classification and characterization of breast carcinomas. Finally, the study of methylation status of three candidate genes was performed on specimens in the study population evaluated using the approaches above. A first observation showed a significant association between the methylation status of RECK gene and breast cancer-specific survival in univariate analysis (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.53 to 0.98, P = 0.037) but not significant in multivariate analysis (HR = 1.01, 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.41, P = 0.96). While the lymph node is a bad prognostic factor (HR = 6.07, 95% CI, 4.30 to 8.55, P < 0.001), we observed a significant interaction between lymph node status and the RECK gene (Pinteraction = 0.0011). In multivariate analysis, among patients without nodal involvement, a significant association between the presence of methylation of RECK gene and an increase in survival was observed (HR = 0.30, 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.64, P = 0.002). For patients with lymph nodes metastasis, an association between the presence of methylation of RECK gene and a decrease in survival was observed (HR = 1.51, 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.3, P = 0.05). An association between the presence of methylation of TIMP3 gene and a better survival was observed but was not significant. The uPA methylation markers tested in our study are not associated with survival. Conclusion: We observed that the methylation status of RECK gene is associated with survival of patients with breast cancer. We also observed that this association varies with lymph node metastasis status. This study needs to be replicated in an independent population with similar characteristics.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2011
Open Access Date: 18 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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