Mécanismes de sécurité pour l'interaction physique humain-robot : réduction des forces de contact par l'utilisation de limiteurs de couple dans la conception de robots manipulateurs

Authors: Lauzier, Nicolas
Advisor: Gosselin, Clément
Abstract: This thesis presents the analysis, synthesis, optimization, design and experimental validation of safety mechanisms in the context of physical human-robot interaction. In order to improve safety, which is essential to allow the coexistence of humans and robots, an approach based on the design of intrinsically safe manipulators is preferred to collision avoidance and detection systems for reliability reasons. The maximum contact force occuring during a collision is used as a safety criterion due to its simplicity and validity in the context of robotics. For serial robots, it is proposed to place a torque limiter in series with each actuator whereas for suspended robots, it is preferable to separate the base and the effector with a parallel mechanism in which some joints are replaced with torque limiters --- thereby forming a \emph{Cartesian force limiting device}. The use of such mechanisms allows the reduction of the effective manipulator inertia during a collision without affecting the performances under normal conditions. A model is first created in order to compare --- using simulations --- the safety gains obtained with torque limiters with the ones obtained with other articular safety mechanisms when they are implemented alone or in combination with other safety devices. Methods to optimally control the thresholds of adjustable torque limiters placed in series with each actuator of a serial robot are developed. A kinematic performance index is proposed in order to optimize the pose and architecture of such a robot. The approach and the developed methods are experimentally validated using prototypes of adjustable torque limiters based on friction which are placed in series with each actuator of a four-degree-of-freedom robot. Finally, architectures of Cartesian force limiting devices are proposed and optimized and their effectiveness in the context of suspended robots is experimentally validated.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2011
Open Access Date: 18 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/22933
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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