Distribution mécanique au champ de punaises prédatrices pour la lutte biologique contre le doryphore de la pomme de terre, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata (SAY)

Authors: de Ladurantaye, Sylvain
Advisor: Khelifi, Mohamed
Abstract: The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is the major insect pest of potato crops in North America, Europe, and Asia, causing important damages and financial lost. Currently, the most common mean used to control this insect consists on regularly applying chemical insecticides. However, these chemical products are often controversial because their excessive and uncontrolled use is hazardous for both the environment and the human health. Also, the CPB has developed over the years a resistance to most of the registered chemical insecticides, including those that were very effective at one time. To remedy to this lack of efficiency, producers usually use large amounts of chemicals, causing therefore health and environment problems and also raising the cost of crop protection. One of the most promising alternatives to chemical insecticides consists of taking advantage of the natural enemies of this insect pest. The use of the stink bug predator Perillus bioculatus to control the CPB has been successful at small scale in Quebec. However, this natural enemy is not abundant enough in the nature to control the CPB. Massive release of this predator on potato crops would be an adequate solution. Since labour force in agriculture is rather rare and expensive and the manual distribution of predators is laborious, it is necessary to mechanize the release process in the field, which represents a major challenge. The main objective of this research study was therefore to design and build a mechanical distributor of predator insects. A mechanical distributor of predators has been designed and built for this purpose. In this distributor, masses of predators are placed in small containers and mixed with popcorn. When the containers cross an opening system, their content drops on potato plants. Many tests carried out using this prototype revealed that the release rate of predators in the field is higher than 90% (more than 90% of the predators are released). This release rate is comparable to that obtained in the laboratory using a test bench. The prototype needs however extensive testing in the field to evaluate the survival of predators and their biological effect. Because of his revolutionary and unique device, this invention is in process to get an international patent.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2011
Open Access Date: 18 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/22917
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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