Biotechnologie des symbioses racinaires en restauration écologique des écosystèmes dégradés à Madagascar

Authors: Sarasin, Gabriel
Advisor: Khasa, Damase P.
Abstract: This study focused on the south-east part of Madagascar, the Anosy region. This region, as elsewhere in Madagascar, is subject to an alarming ecological degradation which is threatening its abundant biodiversity. QMM, a Rio Tinto subsidiary, started in 2009 an important mining project in this region. The company committed itself to social responsibility activities and environmental rehabilitation of the mined site. Indeed, the mining operations imply the clearcutting of the land and the disturbance of the mycorhizosphere in order to extract the minerals found at a depth of twenty meters. Considering the key role of root symbioses in the establishment of plants, these biotools should integrated parts in enhanced reclamation practices. The aim of the project was to test different symbiotic stains (arbuscular mycorrhiza, Glomus irregulare and indigenous rhizobial bacterias, Bradyrhizobium spp.) on Mimosa latispinosa, a native, pioneer and nitrogen fixing shrub. Glomus irregulare and two Malagasy strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. (STM1415 & STM1447) were inoculated alone or in combination on M. Latispinosa in nursery, located close to the mining site. Four months after inoculation, it appeared that none of the symbiotic strain had a significant effect on the plant growth, even if there was a good colonization. However, the soil sterilization produced a positive effect on the plant growth. G. irregulare and two strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. (STM1413 and STM1415) were also tested on M. latispinosa in glasshouse at the headquarter of the National Center for Environmental Research of Madagascar, located at Antananarivo. These trials showed that G. irregulare inoculated alone was ineffective for the plant growth increment, but that dual inoculation increased growth significantly. Both rhizobial strains tested, STM1413 and STM1415, were effective to stimulate the growth of M. Latispinosa in glasshouse. However, the soil conditions were slightly different in the glasshouse, making it difficult to compare the results with the nursery conditions.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2011
Open Access Date: 18 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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