Phylogéographie du pin gris (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) et du pin tordu (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud.)
|Advisor:||Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean|
|Abstract:||The contemporary natural ranges of lodgepole (Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex. Loud) and jack pines (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were almost entirely covered by ice sheets at the last glacial maximum, 21 000 years ago. To better understand the impact of this last glacial episode on these North American boreal pines, the analysis of their genetic diversity was conducted using markers from both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). A strong geographical structure of mtDNA genetic diversity was detected for both species. Three glacial lineages, presumably representative of as much genetically distinct refugia, were inferred for jack pine. Concerning the two principal subspecies of lodgepole pine, contorta and latifolia, respectively two and possibly three distinct glacial refugia were proposed. These mtDNA results indicated the significant role of vicariance played by several mountain ranges on both species during the last glaciation. Larges zones of secondary contacts, resulting from the meeting of migration fronts, were also identified: in central Québec for jack pine and in central and northern British Columbia for lodgepole pine. The analysis of the cpDNA diversity of jack pine revealed no geographical structure, a possible consequence of the homogenizing effect of pollen gene flow. Finally, introgression patterns between the two species, which hybridize in western Alberta, were studied using markers from both cytoplasmic genomes. The atypical distribution of mtDNA diversity revealed an early post-glacial expansion of lodgepole pine all the way into central Canada, followed by range displacement by jack pine. Moreover, a significant association between the cpDNA identity of trees and their morphological attributes as well as ecological site characteristics was detected in stands of the hybrid zone, indicating the buffer effect of pollen gene flow from surrounding stands on limiting recent introgression between the two species.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||18 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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