Impact de l'hybridation introgressive sur la génomique fonctionnelle de l'omble de fontaine (Salvelinus fontinalis, Mitchill)

Authors: Lamaze, Fabien Claude
Advisor: Bernatchez, LouisGarant, Dany
Abstract: Two thirds of the earth’s surface is impacted by human activities. These anthopogenic impacts have considerable consequences for biodiversity. One major anthropogenic impact on wild populations is the translocation of plants and animals. Salmonids are one of the species which is most affected by a long tradition of stocking to support recreational activities and fisheries, resulting in a massive introgression of domestic genes into wild salmonid populations. The main goal of this thesis was to identify and characterize the nature and scale of functional genomic differences between domestic and wild brook charr populations. We takle this objective through three approaches i) genomic studies, ii) measures of transcriptional divergence, and iii) measures of immune system function. With the help of numerous genetic markers in gene coding regions, we identified loci for which selection has favored or hampered the introgression of genomic blocks into the introgressed wild populations for traits related to evolutionary fitness such as growth, energy metabolism, and immunity. Functionally, our analysis revealed that introgression was correlated with a physiological reprogramming that was underlined by misregualtion of gene expression also involved in growth, energetic metabolism and, immunity. Globally, the reduction of adaptive introgression of domestic alleles, and differences in transcriptional patterns, helped us gain a better understanding of some of the mechanisms of outbreeding depression and predict the consequences of stocking practices on the genomic integrity and adaptive potential of wild populations.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2013
Open Access Date: 20 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/22668
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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