Bio-informatique pour la génomique et le diagnostic des maladies infectieuses
|Abstract:||Sequencing a genome is a milestone in the study of an organism. Bioinformatics allow both to better understand single organisms and to compare them to related species through comparative genomics. This thesis centers on the idea that genome sequence of parasites and viruses can be used in various ways to better understand these microorganisms. Transcriptomics and comparative genomics were used to study the protozoan parasite Leishmania in order to better understand its virulence, its resistance to antiparasitic drugs, and its dimorphic life-cycle, which includes a flagellated free form named promastigote and an aflagellate intracellular form named amastigote. In order to study gene expression in Leishmania, an integrated management and analysis system was created, along with protocols designed for Leishmania microarrays analysis. Four studies using this system are briefly described. In another study, the genome of Leishmania (sauroleishmania) tarentolae, a lizard parasite, was sequenced and compared to human pathogenic Leishmania species. This study showed little difference between the Leishmania species, although L. tarentolae seems to contain less genes associated to the amastigote life-cycle, including the amastin gene. Two gene families were highly expanded in L. tarentolae: the surface metalloprotease GP63 and the promastigote antigen protein PSA31C. These results provide a better understanding of L. tarentolae biology and give insights on the genes involved in virulence in pathogenic Leishmania species. The second part of this thesis concerns the creation of a molecular diagnostic assay for the detection and identification of 25 respiratory virus types, including the influenza A/H1N1 pandemic strain and the avian influenza A/H5N1 strain. This assay was created by analyzing genome sequences available from public repositories and it was afterwards tested on laboratory and clinical virus strains. Although Leishmania and respiratory viruses are distantly related, the approaches used in both projects were similar. Thus, bioinformatics is an essential and ubiquitous science that allows to solve problems in different areas (“omics”) of biology.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||17 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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