Compréhension du rôle structural d'exopolysaccharides de bactéries lactiques dans des systèmes laitiers fermentés enrichis en amidon modifié

Authors: Gentès, Marie-Claude
Advisor: Turgeon, SylvieSt-Gelais, Daniel
Abstract: In Canada, modified starch addition in yoghurt is frequent in order to limit technological defects such as syneresis. Despite the addition of modified starch, technological defects still occur. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced naturally by some lactic acid bacteria can be used as stabilizers in yoghurt. Literature indicates that their properties to bind water and to modulate viscosity are not correlated to EPS concentration but to their structure and interactions with milk proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first work that has studied the effect of combined use of modified starch and EPS in yoghurt. The aim of this work was to study the structure-function relationship of EPS produced in situ by lactic acid bacteria on the rheological/physical properties (gel formation, viscosity, firmness, stiffness) and the microstructure of fermented dairy systems with modified starch. Four starters composed of one strain of Streptococcus thermophilus and one strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and producing EPS with known structure were studied: HC15/210R (control), HC15/291 (neutral, stiff, few branched EPS), HC15/702074 (neutral, flexible, highly branched EPS) and 2104/210R (anionic, stiff, linear, EPS). A final pH of 4.6 was obtained after a fermentation of 180-210 minutes à 42 C for all starters. The gel formation process was not influenced by the presence of EPS. The comparison of several EPS of known structure has shown that the anionic EPS from 2104/210R starter improved firmness and viscosity. Neutral, stiff and few branched EPS from HC15/291 starter contributed to viscosity and limited syneresis comparatively to the neutral, flexible and highly branched EPS from HC15/702074 starter. Although the smoothing process had a negative impact on the values of all rheological/physical properties of fermented dairy systems, the functionality of EPS remained. The addition of modified starch improved the rheological/physical properties of stirred fermented dairy systems but had no effect on set fermented dairy systems. To conclude, this work has shown that the rheological/physical properties of fermented dairy systems may be improved by the combination of modified starch and EPS with specific structural characteristics.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2011
Open Access Date: 17 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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