Influence des charges verticales sur les performances latérales des murs de refend en bois à ossature légère
|Advisor:||Salenikovich, Alexander; Muñoz Toro, Williams Manuel|
|Abstract:||In light-frame buildings, it is diaphragms and shear walls that transfer the lateral forces to the foundation through shear and hold-down restraint. The use of hold-down anchoring devices limits the overturning and therefore improves the lateral resistance of the system. However, these anchors are rarely used in the traditional light-frame construction and the lateral resistance of such systems is largely unknown. One of the factors limiting the overturning of partially restrained walls is the action of the vertical loads. A study was performed at the Laval University aiming at the determination of the influence of the vertical load applied to a wall on its lateral performance. The experimentation program consisted of 43 static and cyclic racking tests on full-size light-frame walls with and without hold-downs. The walls were 2.44-m tall and 2.44-m and 4.88-m long fully sheathed with OSB panels on one side. Three intensities of the vertical dead load were applied to walls without hold-downs: roof load, one storey load and load needed to prevent any overturning (corresponding to a fully restrained wall). Three 4.88-m long walls with hold-downs were tested under one storey load. Control specimens of each configuration were tested without vertical load according to relevant ASTM standards. Results show that application of vertical loads improves maximum capacity of non-anchored walls regardless the load protocol. A comparison of various methods of calculation of the lateral resistance of walls under combined loads was done using experimental verification. The results show that the CSA-O86 method is conservative for low vertical loads, but seems to overestimate the lateral capacity up to 10% for higher loads. The Källsner method is the most conservative. Overall, the design methods give reasonable estimate of the capacity of non-anchored walls used in practice. The calculation of the wall deflections proposed by CSA-O86 was also verified. This formula seems to overestimate the rigidity of non-anchored walls. To stay conservative, a note should be added to the definition of nail deformation, en, indicating that the load per nail should be the one observed for an anchored wall. This formulation is based on the assumption that all sheathing-to-bottom plate nails reach its ultimate capacity. Finally, it was observed that increasing the vertical load decreases the amount of uplift of the chords and therefore increases the work of the nails along the perimeter of the panel, which allows greater rotation of the panels about the frame.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||17 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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