Découverte et caractérisation des petites protéines sécrétées chez les rouilles foliaires du peuplier (melampsora spp.)
|Advisor:||Mackay, John; Hamelin, Richard C.|
|Abstract:||Poplar leaf rusts belonging to the genus Melampsora are considered as the world’s most important disease of poplars. During infection, Melampsora species secrete a diverse set of effector proteins that aim to reprogram the host into a susceptible state. However, recognition of particular effector proteins by the plant immune system, so-called avirulence proteins, leads to induction of the hypersensitve response, a form of programmed cell death. Based on prevalent models of plant–pathogen coevolution, some of these effectors, notably those with avirulence functions, are predicted to exhibit molecular signatures of accelerated evolution. In this thesis, features described above were used to identify the pathogenicity determinants of poplar leaf rusts with the specific aim of identifying candidate effector proteins. The first part of this thesis includes the development of a multifaceted approach to take advantage of available EST libraries, and included computational prediction of secreted proteins, intra- and interspecific comparative genomics, and testing for the presence of positive selection. Accelerated evolution was found to act more importantly on secreted proteins, and most of those proteins under positive selection were shown to harbour a high number of Cys residues and to share no homology in international databases. The second part of this thesis presents the results of a collaborative effort to characterize the entire secretome of M. larici-populina using expert annotation, screening for positive selection, and transcript profiling approaches. A significant part of the secretome was found to be under positive selection, and commonalities described before were observed again (Cys-rich proteins with no homology in international databases). Most of those with transcript evidence were found to be specifically expressed in planta, and positively selected sites were concentrated in the C-terminal region, consistent with an effector function. As a first step toward a functional characterization, immunolocalization of selected candidates has revealed specific labeling of some proteins in the haustoria periphery.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||16 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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